Problem Solving Forum (501)


When a food plant runs 24/7, even during coating maintenance, tiny airborne food particles can contaminate a prepared surface. How do you identify, prevent and/or remove such contamination before coating?


What quality control checks can I use to assure the cleanliness of steel abrasive in a fabricator's or shipyard's shop?


How do you maintain a proper operating mix of recyclable abrasive in the field?


What is the best method of testing for moisture content in concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls before application of coatings?


Does roller nap decrease the lifespan of a three-coat OZEU (organic zinc prime coat, an epoxy intermediate coat and a urethane finish coat) paint system? Is there a visual guide or specification for this in the industry or test results available for study?


During a week of heavy rain, we painted the interior walls of a heated concrete building. On the interior of walls that had an outside exposure, the paint blistered badly a week after the rain subsided. Could the rain have caused the blistering and, if so, how?


What surface treatment is best when the maximum manufacturer recommended interval for overcoating has been exceeded?


How do you assess salts and other non-visible contaminants on concrete surfaces?


What tests and criteria can a coatings user specify to assure consistent lot-to-lot performance of supplied coatings?


Where are errors most likely to occur when measuring dry film thickness on steel, and how can they be avoided?


Is the MEK rub test a conclusive test to check the cure of IOZ coatings?


Why would a pull-off adhesion test give a high value (no failure) for a solventless epoxy that later showed poor adhesion in service?


What is the correct procedure for carrying out preventive maintenance painting work in a small chemical product tank?


How does concave or convex curvature of a surface affect the WFT reading?


How should a contractor respond when he/she reads a specification requirement that "the nominal dry film thickness of the coating shall be 3 mils"?


How do you calibrate a DFT gauge in the magnetic field of a live power plant to measure coatings on steel substrates?


As an engineer in a moderate-sized chemical plant, how can I justify the cost of third-party inspection to upper management?


What measures must be taken to determine and assure the cleanliness of an abrasive?


When and why would I need to stripe coat if I am using an edge-retention primer?


When is it necessary to install sealant between the base of building walls and concrete sidewalks or pavement to prevent moisture from wicking up the wall? How does the climate affect this decision?


What health and safety precautions should contractors take when applying isocyanate-cured epoxies in the field?


What is the best method for removing production machine oils soaked deeply into a concrete floor before applying a non-skid coating?


What factors would justify coating stainless steel in water or wastewater service? What standards and methods apply?


As a facility owner, how can I justify the cost of quality control measures, such as third-party inspection, to upper management in my company?


How do you gauge the remaining service life of an aging FBE system on a buried transmission pipeline?


When applying a 100% solids, fast-curing polyurea coating on concrete, what is the best method for verifying that the proper thickness has been applied?


Is there any method to take accurate wet film thickness readings when applying zinc rich primers?


What is an acceptable level of moisture in concrete walls before painting with an acrylic system, and how is the moisture level measured?


Specifications often state that glossy surfaces must be dulled before overcoating. What are some methods for doing this, especially when sanding isn’t feasible or desirable?


What types of measures can be taken on or around metal pipes or columns that penetrate concrete or asphalt paving to reduce corrosion at the interface?


What steps must be taken to mitigate poor adhesion over an existing aged silver aluminum paint? What primer will achieve good adhesion?


How does rapid depressurization affect lining performance in vessels and line pipe, and how can you identify any failure that might result?


What is the best way to remove thick-film elastomers from floors and ship decks?


How do you remove all traces of an uncured internal coating from a tank when abrasive blasting is not an option?


What smartphone apps or online tools do you find useful in your job? How do they work, and how have they benefited you?


Is grinding the only way to remove large areas of a silicone coating from a ship's hull to replace the silicone with an epoxy mastic?


When a specification calls for removal of only loose coating rather than complete coating removal from a masonry substrate, what surface preparation methods are most likely to work without damaging the intact coating that is left on the surface?


How should surface preparation be conducted in non-sparking atmospheres?


What kind of training and credentials are needed in the U.S. for industrial painters who work near live wires?


A specification requires Manufacturer X’s system “or equivalent.” What does “or equivalent” mean, and who decides what’s “equivalent?”


What causes bubbling or cratering of an epoxy intermediate coat when applied over epoxy zinc-rich primer?


How does the concave or convex curvature of a surface affect the dry film thickness reading?


Is there a place for using “rust convertors” in heavy-duty maintenance projects?


What is the effect of the wind-chill factor on the curing of epoxy and PU when temperatures are similar?


How does residue from chemical stripping affect the performance of the replacement coating?


I have several water tanks constructed with carbon steel for demineralized water storage. The tanks are about 20 years old, and the original coating has started to blister. For refurbishment of the coating, what material should be used and at what dry film thickness? The original type of coating is unknown.


What is the maximum number of holidays that should be permitted for linings used in immersion service, and why?


What is the Cold Wall Effect? Can it cause premature coating failure and, if so, how do I prevent or minimize it?


When SSPC-SP 3 (Power Tool Cleaning) is specified, how should one decide when to apply the tool to the entire surface and when to use it just where the coating appears defective or rusting?


How much detail should be included in a specification for the surface preparation and painting of a parking garage exterior that includes tilt-up and structural concrete substrates?


How much detail should be included in a specification for the surface preparation and painting of a parking garage exterior that includes tilt-up and structural concrete substrates?


How should a contractor respond when he reads a specification requirement that "the nominal dry film thickness of the coating shall be 3 mils"?


What are some ways to improve transfer efficiency of airless spray application?


What is the clearest way to specify the degree of smoothness that you want to be achieved by surface preparation on an exterior wood substrate that is covered with deteriorated, uneven and built-up layers of paint?


Should the surfaces of flanges be coated to prevent corrosion? Why or why not?


What type of coating system (and surface prep) should be used to protect a steel factory roof that is subject to hydrochloric acid vapors and other industrial pollutants and particulates in a hot, humid environment?


What environmental and safety precautions need to be taken when removing lead-based paint from the brick on a commercial building adjacent to the sidewalk in a dense urban business district when the removal method is chemical stripping followed by water blasting?


How do you properly coat welded joints?


Is it sufficient to specify simply that paint should be applied "according to the manufacturer’s instructions?" If not, what kind of detail should be included?


What is the best way to repair localized coating breakdown on steel?


Can water be sprayed onto an IOZ coated surface, which has not fully cured due to low humid conditions, to accelerate the cure?


How do I determine when a cementitious-based mortar used to repair exterior concrete is ready to be coated?


Under what conditions should stainless steel be painted in the oil and gas industry?


When a food plant runs 24/7 even during coating maintenance, tiny food particles floating in the air (e.g., sugar from sugar processing) in the plant can contaminate a prepared surface. How do you prevent such contamination, or identify it and remove it before applying the coating?


Should 304 stainless steel pipework be coated prior to insulation?


What kind of surface preparation prior to coating will be effective and at the same time economical for the aluminum window frames on a large commercial office building? The aluminum was coated originally with a baked-on fluoropolymer which has lost most of its gloss. Maintenance recoating will be with an air-dry fluoropolymer.


What is most effective treatment for steel contaminated with MIC before painting?


Your field surface preparation requires SSPC SP-10 and your field bolting uses hot-dip galvanized bolts. What surface preparation do you require/allow on and around the bolts?


What is the best way to assure compliance with specified dry film coating thickness requirements on vertical concrete?


Can you provide recommendations on ways to make sure an acid stain can be successfully applied to an existing horizontal concrete surface? I understand that residues such as coatings, curing agents, waxes, or other materials will interfere with the stain’s reaction with the concrete, but can I find out what the substances are so I know how to remove them?


What are the alternatives for removing mildew from previously uncoated concrete block exteriors before coating?


How does abrasive recycling affect cleaning rates when steel is blast-cleaned in the field?


What is the best method of testing for moisture content in concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls prior to application of coatings?


Which type of abrasive blasting media is suitable for preparing the more “exotic” stainless steels, such as Inconel or Monel?


What is the difference between a damp-surface tolerant and a wet-surface tolerant paint? How can we determine when a surface is damp or wet?


What do you do when the surface profile is higher than the dry film thickness of the specified primer?


A specification for a bridge to be built of high-performance weathering steel requires an SSPC-SP 10, a profile of 3 to 5 mils, and metallizing with a final DFT of 10-12 mils. What challenges, time, and costs are associated with obtaining the profile?


During a week of heavy rain, we painted the interior of a heated concrete building. The paint blistered badly a week later on the walls with an outside exposure. What’s the best way to remove the coating, prepare the surface, and recoat to prevent future blistering?


I need to coat a bare concrete warehouse floor that has visible oil stains. What are my options for cleaning the concrete before coating it?


Is it cost-effective to grind steel edges before coating for atmospheric service? Why or why not?


What is the best way to repair localized coating breakdown on steel?


What causes static electricity during abrasive blasting? What risk does it pose, and how can it be controlled?


What causes blistering/crater formation in freshly applied polyurethane topcoats, and how can this be avoided?


Which is the most reliable technique to determine pot life of two component paints?


What’s the best way to prevent corrosion of reinforcing bar in concrete?


How do you protect concrete against microbiologically influenced corrosion?


What is the proper surface preparation for stainless steel before coating to resist a salt-laden atmosphere?


Under what circumstances is third-party inspection justified on commercial coating work?


What are the advantages and disadvantages of using mechanical equipment inspectors or welding inspectors, instead of certified coating inspectors, to perform coating inspection duties?


What is the best low-maintenance approach to coating power-tool-cleaned field weld joints on process pipework that is protected with thermal-sprayed aluminum?


What pluses and minuses have you seen with using recycled-glass abrasives vs. traditional abrasives?


What components of an onshore shale gas drilling rig require coating protection, and what properties must the coatings have?


How do I prepare an oil-stained, bare concrete floor for coating?


How do you prepare flame-cut edges for application of thermal spray metallic coatings? The problem is that these edges are often harder than the abrasive, so a very low profile is produced, resulting in lower-than-specified adhesion of the thermal spray to the steel.


How pure must fresh water be for water washing or waterjetting, and how do you determine the water’s purity?


What is the best way to achieve proper surface preparation in areas with limited access, such as interior box beams on bridges?


How long after blasting can stainless steel be left before painting? If this time is exceeded, what further surface preparation is required?


Zinc metalizing has been applied to concrete surfaces to provide cathodic protection to rebar in the concrete. What are the problems, if any, with applying zinc metalizing to concrete, and what is the best approach to addressing them?


How do you determine if local water is suitable for use in UHP waterjetting, particularly in areas where potable water is scarce?


Some painting specifications call for the use of “Best Effort” in relation to blasting. How does one determine “Best Effort?”


What is the service life of a painted weathering steel bridge, compared to a painted carbon steel bridge in the same service environment?


When is it cost-effective to use thermal spray in petrochemical facilities?


Are there special primers and surface preparation requirements for painting unpainted aluminum?


Is it necessary to holiday test the interior lining in the vapor phase (roof) of water storage tanks after coating?


What is an acceptable level of moisture in concrete walls before painting with an acrylic system, and how should the moisture level be measured?


Specifications often state that glossy surfaces must be dulled before overcoating. What are some methods for doing this, especially when sanding isn’t feasible?


Which DFT statistics should be recorded in a daily inspection report, and why are they relevant to a good coating QC record?


What should be included in the risk assessment of a particular painting project?


If a zinc rich epoxy primer has been applied at lower than the specified thickness, how should this be treated?


How do you know when pot life has expired? Can you extend pot life and, if so, how?


The trend in bridge repainting projects is that they are routinely including structural repairs; however, the sequencing of the work on these projects is important. When should structural repairs be conducted: before, during or after the cleaning and repainting operations?


We need to paint our publicly owned lighthouse. What should I include in the specifications for this bid regarding surface preparation, coating systems, and other considerations?


What percentage of deterioration is acceptable at a one-year warranty inspection of water tank linings before a contractor must repair the coating job?


How many areas should be tested for possible chloride contamination during fabrication of an offshore production platform, and why?


What are the common moisture tests for vertical, below-grade concrete structures scheduled to receive a high-build, protective lining system?


When a specification requires Manufacturer X’s system “or equivalent,” what does “or equivalent” mean, and who decides what’s equivalent?


How do you use smartphone apps on the job? What tasks or needs does your phone or tablet help with during the course of a day?


What are the best solutions (and limitations) for refurbishing small diameter (less than 10-inch) embedded pipelines with multiple bends?


When performing maintenance painting of tank coatings, what are the pros and cons of overcoating an existing lining that appears to be in good condition?


What are the pros and cons of using shotblasting to remove a coating system from a concrete floor?


What causes concrete “dusting,” and is there any way to prevent or remove it?


What components of an onshore shale gas drilling rig require coating protection, and what properties must the coatings have?


How do you best remove lubricants and other contaminants from field-bolted connections prior to painting?


What is the function of an air receiver during blasting?


What is the most important factor to determine in a failure investigation and why is it so?


Under what types of exterior atmospheric exposures (other than marine) is it necessary to test for soluble salts?


What is the best method for protecting cables on suspension bridges from corrosion?


What errors are most likely to occur when measuring dry film thickness on steel, and how can I avoid them?


How do you repair polyurea coatings?


RH probes are commonly used in concrete floors to determine moisture content. Can they be used in CMU walls or pre-cast walls?


If an owner is using thermal spray aluminum on a pipe exterior as corrosion protection under insulation, and there is a holiday in the coating, will corrosion be substantially accelerated at the base carbon steel, being that the steel is now anodic to the aluminum?


What is the correct gauge type and probe for measuring coating thickness of a super duplex stainless steel system with epoxy and polyurethane?


What are the advantages and disadvantages of using mechanical equipment inspectors or welding inspectors, instead of certified coating inspectors, to perform coating inspection duties?


How long after blasting can stainless steel be left before painting? If this time is exceeded, what further surface preparation is required?


When refurbishing an old concrete secondary containment wall around a storage tank, what criteria should be used to determine if a crack can be repaired for coating or if the section of the wall should be rebuilt?


What is the best method for preparing newly galvanized steel to be overcoated with an epoxy system?


What abrasive should be used to prepare stainless steel?


How do you overcoat an aged inorganic zinc coating?


What can be done to prevent rust bleed in crevices when applying a zinc/epoxy/urethane system?


How do I prepare an oil-stained, bare concrete floor for coating?


When applying a 100% solids, fast-curing polyurea coating on concrete, what is the best method for verifying that the proper thickness has been applied?


Do you need to wait for the mortar to cure before repainting a brick surface after repointing and power-tool cleaning to remove loosely adhered coating material from a previous paint job? If so, how long, and is there a way to judge when it is safe?


When SSPC-SP3 (Power Tool Cleaning) is specified, how should one decide when to apply the tool to the entire surface and when to use it just where the coating appears defective or rusting?


How do you determine whether a lead-bearing coating can be overcoated or must be removed and replaced?


What causes static electricity during abrasive blasting? What risk does it pose, and how can it be controlled?


Do you need to wait for the mortar to cure before repainting a brick surface after repointing and power-tool cleaning? If so, how long, and how do you judge when it is safe?


How should a conflict between requirements, such as film thickness, on a product data sheet and the specification be resolved?


As a facility owner, how can I justify the cost of quality control measures, such as third-party inspection, to upper management in my company?


When should you specify UHP waterjetting on bridges?


Which is the ideal test method (ASTM/ ISO) to test the flexibility of a lining product (organic coating) to be applied on concrete storage tanks to store brine water?


How can I determine the cleanliness of stainless steel for painting after blast cleaning?


How much detail should be included in a specification for the surface preparation and painting of a parking garage exterior that includes tilt-up and structural concrete substrates?


What is the clearest way to specify the degree of smoothness that you want to be achieved by surface preparation on an exterior wood substrate that is covered with deteriorated, uneven, and built-up layers of paint?


How do you account for the profile of blasted steel when taking a dry film thickness reading?


There are ways to increase the pressure for waterjetting to levels above 20,000 psi. What are the effects of different pressures (below and above 20,000 psi) on cleaning ratios?


What causes a persistent green/yellow hue on steel that has been exposed for a number of years in close proximity to the ocean, and how should the steel be prepared for painting?


Should pull-off adhesion tests be carried out on a zinc-rich primer alone, or only on a complete system?


What is the best way to remedy over-thickness of a topcoat after it has dried and cured?


How do you abrasive-blast the interior surfaces of steel or ductile iron pipe scheduled to receive a high-build, high-performance protective lining system?


What factors would justify coating stainless steel in water or wastewater service? What standards and methods apply?


How do you gauge the remaining service life of an aging FBE system on a buried transmission pipeline?


Is there any method to take accurate wet film thickness readings when applying zinc rich primers?


Can fluoropolymer coatings that are still very glossy be overcoated (if, for example, the topcoat is losing color or the color needs to be changed)? If so, what type of coating can be used, and what surface preparation is required?


How can it be determined if moisture within a CMU wall is causing repeated coating failure? If so, can the source of moisture entry be accurately identified for correction?


How clean must the compressed-air supply be for blast cleaning, blow down and painting? How is cleanliness of the air determined?


How do concrete admixtures such as hardeners and anti-dust compounds affect coating adhesion? What can be done to minimize negative effects?


What types of measures can be taken on or around metal pipes or columns that penetrate concrete or asphalt paving to reduce corrosion at the interface?


Under what conditions should stainless steel be painted in the oil and gas industry?


When is it necessary to install sealant between the base of building walls and concrete sidewalks or pavement to prevent moisture from wicking up the wall? How does the climate affect this decision?


How does rapid depressurization affect lining performance in vessels and line pipe, and how can you identify any failure that might result?


After applying a thermal spray coating on a petrochemical industry live line that operates at 48 degrees Celsius (118 degrees Fahrenheit), the coating sustained a brown discoloration on the bottom of the pipe. What would cause this discoloration of a TSA coating?


What is the best way to remove thick-film elastomers from floors and ship decks?


In reviewing the testing data for adhesion, some manufacturers indicate ASTM D4541 results while others show ASTM C3359 results. Is it possible to compare one against the other? For example, does 1037 psi provide better adhesion than 4A?


Is grinding the only way to remove large areas of a silicone coating from a ship's hull to replace the silicone with an epoxy mastic?


How should surface preparation be conducted in non-sparking atmospheres?


How do you repair delaminated areas of an elastomeric polyurea when the majority of the coating system is intact?


How does abrasive recycling affect cleaning rates when steel is blast-cleaned in the field?


When performing maintenance surveys on structures that require coatings under insulation, how do you inspect the condition of the coatings?


In what circumstances is third-party inspection justified on commercial coating work?


I am the facility manager for a new amusement park that will operate year-round in a hot, humid environment. Some critical structural steel in the heart of the park needs to be protected from corrosion and at the same time to retain very good appearance properties for as long as possible, since maintenance painting is disruptive. What coating system should I select to achieve the longest useful life, given that cost is a secondary consideration, and how long will this system look good while providing corrosion protection?


What kind of surface preparation prior to coating will be effective and at the same time economical for the aluminum window frames on a large commercial office building? The aluminum was coated originally with a baked-on fluoropolymer which has lost most of its gloss. Maintenance recoating will be with an air-dry fluoropolymer.


What coating or lining system, including surface preparation, should be used on an in-ground swimming pool constructed of galvanized steel in a northern climate?


Is it practical to use black light to check for dirt or other foreign matter during surface preparation inspection?


What is the risk of damaging a paint film by inspecting a repaired area more than twice with a high-voltage holiday detector?


How does one apply thin polymer coatings to installed tubes or pipes with diameters of one to three inches and lengths of 20 to 60 feet?


I’ve heard about using crystalline admixture or crystalline materials on top of concrete to fill voids and make the substrate less permeable. When is this desirable, and what is the best way to use these materials?


What errors are most likely to occur when measuring dry film thickness on steel, and how can I avoid them?


When a specification calls for removing only loose coating from a masonry substrate, what methods are effective without damaging the intact coating that is left on the surface?


When coating an aged concrete floor, how should one determine the correct sequence of surface preparation among the options of pressure washing and grinding or other concrete removal and roughening methods?


What smartphone apps or online tools do you find useful in your job? How do they work, and how do they help?


Can fluoropolymer coatings that are still very glossy be overcoated (if, for example, the topcoat is losing color or the color needs to be changed)? If so, what type of coating can be used, and what surface preparation is required?


When we use field splice plate connections on structural steel projects, how do we prevent rust and rust staining at bolt heads and at the splice plate/steel interface?


What kind of coating system provides the strongest resistance to staining from hot tires on garage floors and parking decks?


How do you determine the best type of staining to impart color and seal on a 30 to 40-year-old brick building being restored with some brick-faced additions?


What tests and criteria can a coatings user specify to assure consistent lot-to-lot performance of supplied coatings?


When coating an aged concrete floor, how should one determine the correct sequence of surface preparation among the options of pressure washing and grinding or other concrete removal and roughening methods?


What is best way to remedy over-thickness of a topcoat after it has dried and cured?


Where are errors most likely to occur when measuring dry film thickness on steel, and how can they be avoided?


How do you assess vertical concrete surface pH after surface preparation of existing concrete?


For coatings with a high-solids content (95 percent or more), what kinds of defects, such as holidays or micropores, are possible or likely to occur in the applied film? How can these be prevented or remedied?


What is the best way to prevent tropical hardwood deck lumber like ironwood from developing a gray patina in sunlight?


How do you prepare flame-cut edges for application of thermal spray metallic coatings? The problem is that these edges are often harder than the abrasive, so a very low profile is produced, resulting in lower-than-specified adhesion of the thermal spray to the steel.


Can lightweight block (CMU) be successfully coated to prevent water intrusion, or is it best to build with standard weight?


Why would a pull-off adhesion test give a high value (no failure) for a solventless epoxy that later showed poor adhesion in service?


What type of material should I use to achieve bright, bold colors on a concrete floor with heavy foot traffic?


How do you accurately measure the adhesion of inorganic zinc?


How can you determine the moisture content of a concrete block (CMU) wall, and how can you judge when the moisture level is low enough to paint?


What are some ways to improve transfer efficiency of airless spray application?


When SSPC-SP3 (Power Tool Cleaning) is specified, how should one decide when to apply the tool to the entire surface and when to use it just where the coating appears defective or rusting?


How can I determine when concrete has cured sufficiently to be coated, besides waiting the 28 days typically specified?


What are the pros and cons of using shotblasting to remove a coating system from a concrete floor?


What kind of initial treatment is the best defense against graffiti for rough-surfaced concrete block (CMU)?


How does the concave or convex curvature of a surface affect the dry film thickness reading?


Where there is likely to be ponding water, what generic type of reflective roof coating will work best and why?


Considering cost, productivity, and thoroughness, what is the best way to remove paint from cement blocks (CMUs)?


Is there a place for using “rust convertors” in heavy-duty maintenance projects?


Do you need to wait for the mortar to cure before repainting a brick surface after repointing and power-tool cleaning? If so, how long, and how do you judge when it is safe?


What is the clearest way to specify the degree of smoothness required by surface preparation on an exterior wood substrate covered with deteriorated and uneven layers of paint?


Should the surfaces of flanges be coated to prevent corrosion? Why or why not?


What is the effect of the wind-chill factor on the curing of epoxy and PU when temperatures are similar?


What is the Cold Wall Effect? Can it cause premature coating failure on a building and, if so, how do I prevent it?


Theoretically, how many LEED credits can be acquired for a newly constructed building through the use of coatings and related technologies?


What would be an optimal coating system, in terms of durability and productivity in field painting, for exposed structural steel on a stadium in a damp, cold environment?


What causes blistering/crater formation in freshly applied polyurethane topcoats, and how can this be avoided?


What is the best way to assure compliance with specified dry film coating thickness requirements on vertical concrete?


Is it sufficient to specify simply that paint should be applied "according to the manufacturer’s instructions?" If not, what kind of detail should be included?


What is the best way to repair localized coating breakdown on steel?


What are the alternatives for removing mildew from uncoated concrete block exteriors before coating?


Does roller nap decrease the lifespan of a three-coat OZEU (organic zinc prime coat, an epoxy intermediate coat, and a urethane finish coat) paint system? Is there a visual guide or specification for this in the industry or test results available for study?


When performing maintenance surveys on structures that require coatings under insulation, how do you inspect the condition of the coatings?


What surface treatment is best when the maximum manufacturer recommended interval for overcoating has been exceeded?


Structural engineers often prefer mechanically galvanized bolts for accurate tightening while corrosion experts often prefer hot-dip galvanized bolts for superior corrosion protection. How do you resolve this inherent conflict?


In what circumstances is third-party inspection recommended for commercial coating work?


Your field surface preparation requires SSPC SP-10 and your field bolting uses hot-dip galvanized bolts. What surface preparation do you require/allow on and around the bolts?


How do you best remove lubricants and other contaminants from field-bolted connections prior to painting?


What causes bubbling or cratering of epoxy intermediate coat when applied over epoxy zinc-rich primer?


What is the correct procedure for carrying out preventive maintenance painting work in a small chemical product tank?


Animal fat in slaughterhouses often penetrates concrete surfaces. If the fat is not removed before the concrete is coated, the fat can cause the coating to fail. How do you identify and remove the contamination before coating the concrete?


What is the most important factor to determine in a failure investigation and why is it so?


What criteria should an owner use to determine whether to specify full removal or spot- or zone-repair on a maintenance project?


When and how should ambiguities between a coating spec, data sheets and responsibilities be clarified?


Under what circumstances is third-party inspection justified on commercial coating work?


If you’re performing a QA inspection as a part-time consultant and the surface in question was blasted and painted two days before you arrived on-site, should you sign off on the work if the owner asks you to?


On guardrails on a marine wharf, grating panels consisting of mild steel bars about 1/8-inch by 1-inch on a 2-inch-square grid were painted with a three-coat zinc/epoxy/urethane system. Inspectors are finding numerous pinholes in the finish coat along the inside corners of the grating where the 1-inch-thick bars meet at a 90-degree angle. These pinholes were not noticed in the zinc or epoxy coats, but the final coat's visual inspection is more detailed. What is the likely cause of the pinholing, and what could be done to prevent it on future applications? Also, what should the disposition of the parts with pinholes be, as in, repair, accept as is, reblast and recoat, or an alternative?


Some specifications may have requirements that the inspector may know to be extraneous or may be more restrictive than necessary to obtain a quality coating application. What is the ethical responsibility of the inspector to reject non-conforming coatings that they know will perform as intended, particularly where attempted repairs may degrade the coating system?


Under what conditions should small-diameter blisters (<1.5 inches) in a water tank lining be repaired/repainted? Should the blisters be broken and the substrate examined?


What causes static electricity during abrasive blasting? What risk does it pose, and how can it be controlled?


What are the most effective procedures for protecting steel and adjacent concrete together?


What are the advantages and disadvantages of using mechanical equipment inspectors or welding inspectors, instead of certified coating inspectors, to perform coating inspection duties?


Should you paint the stainless steel outfitting (ladders, supports, etc.) in steel cargo tanks of chemical tankers?


How do I minimize corrosion at the splash zone on sheet pile and piping in brackish water?


In preparing for coating, what is the best way to treat a steel surface that has been attacked by microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC)?


When blasting cast-iron structural steelwork, what type of defects might be found, and how do you address them?


What advantages/disadvantages have you seen with using recycled glass abrasives vs. traditional abrasives?


What tests should be run to determine if an existing concrete bridge pier needs rehabilitation or repair before cleaning and coating?


What are some ways to improve transfer efficiency of airless spray application?


How pure must fresh water be for water washing or waterjetting, and how do you determine the water’s purity?


What is the best method for protecting cables on suspension bridges from corrosion?


How does the concave or convex curvature of a surface affect the dry film thickness reading?


What are the criteria for selecting coatings for application during extreme (atmospheric) heat?


How long after blasting can stainless steel be left before painting? If this time is exceeded, what further surface preparation is required?


RH probes are commonly used in concrete floors to determine moisture content. Can they be used in CMU walls or pre-cast walls?


What are the pros and cons of specifying sieve sizes for abrasives?


What coating problems are likely in storage tanks that have dissimilar metal sides and floors?


How can it be determined if moisture within a CMU wall is causing repeated coating failure? If so, can the source of moisture entry be accurately identified for correction?


How do you remove all traces of an uncured internal coating from a tank when abrasive blasting is not an option?


How do you keep sealants in control joints from cracking or separating from the substrate?


We are restricted to applying road-marking paints during hot, humid summer nights, on surfaces very often below dew point conditions. What is the best generic type of marking paint to use?


If the walls of single-wythe CMU with core fill insulation become saturated, can they be adequately dried out for painting? If so, how?


What’s the best way to prevent corrosion of reinforcing bar in concrete?


How do you determine whether a lead-bearing coating can be overcoated or removed and replaced?


What is the best way to achieve proper surface preparation in areas with limited access, such as interior box beams on bridges?


How many times can a building be repainted before the paint becomes too thick to perform properly?


What are the most effective procedures for protecting steel and adjacent concrete together?


What types of measures can be taken on or around metal pipes or columns that penetrate concrete or asphalt paving to reduce corrosion at the interface?


How long can a blasted surface be left before priming under different temperatures/relative humidity environments?


When is it necessary to install sealant between the base of building walls and pavement to prevent moisture from wicking up the wall? How does the climate affect this decision?


How do you protect concrete against microbiologically influenced corrosion?


What is the optimal moisture content for masonry before painting can begin?


How can active corrosion be determined on a live pipeline?


What is the proper surface preparation for stainless steel before coating to resist a salt-laden atmosphere?


How do you determine if local water is suitable for use in UHP waterjetting, particularly in areas where potable water is scarce?


What are the advantages and disadvantages of using mechanical equipment inspectors or welding inspectors, instead of certified coating inspectors, to perform coating inspection duties?


What is the best way to prevent corrosion of reinforcing bar in concrete?


How do you adequately assess the adhesion of a newly applied coating?


What pluses and minuses have you seen with using recycled-glass abrasives vs. traditional abrasives?


What measures must be taken to determine and assure the cleanliness of an abrasive?


When is it necessary to install sealant between the base of building walls and concrete sidewalks or pavement to prevent moisture from wicking up the wall? How does the climate affect this decision?


What is the best method for removing production machine oils soaked deeply into a concrete floor before applying a non-skid coating?


When and why would I need to stripe coat if I am using an edge-retention primer?


When performing maintenance painting of tank coatings, what are the pros and cons of overcoating an existing lining that appears to be in good condition?


What are the most effective procedures for protecting steel and adjacent concrete?


When refurbishing an old concrete secondary containment wall around a storage tank, what criteria should be used to determine if a crack can be repaired for coating or if the section of the wall should be rebuilt?


How many times can a building be repainted before the paint becomes too thick to perform properly?


What is the best method for preparing newly galvanized steel to be overcoated with an epoxy system?


How pure must fresh water be for water washing or waterjetting, and how do you determine the water’s purity?


What can be done to prevent rust bleed in crevices when applying a zinc/epoxy/urethane system?


How long after blasting can stainless steel be left before painting? If this time is exceeded, what further surface preparation is required?


When applying a 100% solids, fast-curing polyurea coating on concrete, what is the best method for verifying that the proper thickness has been applied?


Which generic coating systems are suitable for protecting pipeline internals carrying highly abrasive media?


What are the criteria for selecting coatings for application during extreme (atmospheric) heat?


Are there special primers and surface preparation requirements for painting unpainted aluminum?


How do you determine whether a lead-bearing coating can be overcoated or removed and replaced?


How do you calibrate a DFT gauge in the magnetic field of a live power plant to measure coatings on steel substrates?


How do you adequately assess the adhesion of a newly applied coating?


When should you specify UHP waterjetting on bridges?


Specifications often state that glossy surfaces must be dulled before overcoating. What are some methods for doing this, especially when sanding isn’t feasible?


I’ve heard that the use of the proper blast media is critical for the successful application of thermal spray aluminum and other metallics. What mechanism would lead to the differing performance characteristics of the TSA based on the blast media?


How should a conflict between requirements, such as film thickness, on a product data sheet and the specification be resolved?


Under what conditions should you apply a resurfacing mortar to new, below-grade vertical concrete scheduled to receive a high-build, protective lining system for chemical containment or immersion service?


How can I determine the cleanliness of stainless steel for painting after blast cleaning?


We need to paint our publicly owned lighthouse. What should I include in the specifications for this bid regarding surface preparation, coating systems, and other considerations?


How can you determine if a concrete substrate is in suitable condition for application of an acid stain?


I’ve heard about using crystalline admixture or crystalline materials on top of concrete to fill voids and make the substrate less permeable. When is this desirable, and what is the best way to use these materials?


When a specification calls for removing only loose coating from a masonry substrate, what methods are effective without damaging the intact coating that is left on the surface?


What are the common moisture tests for vertical, below-grade concrete structures scheduled to receive a high-build, protective lining system?


What smartphone apps or online tools do you find useful in your job? How do they work, and how do they help?


How do you assess salts and other non-visible contaminants on concrete surfaces?


How do you assess salts and other non-visible contaminants on concrete surfaces?


What is best way to remedy over-thickness of a topcoat after it has dried and cured?


What factors would justify coating stainless steel in water or wastewater service? What standards and methods apply?


How does one determine if concrete is sound enough to receive a thick-film coating?


How to do you abrasive-blast the interior surfaces of steel or ductile iron pipe scheduled to receive a high-build, high-performance protective lining system?


How do you assess vertical concrete surface pH after surface preparation of existing concrete?


How do you gauge the remaining service life of an aging FBE system on a buried transmission pipeline?


Can lightweight block (CMU) be successfully coated to prevent water intrusion, or is it best to build with standard weight?


How clean must the compressed-air supply be for blast cleaning, blow down and painting? How is cleanliness of the air determined?


Under what conditions should stainless steel be painted in the oil and gas industry?


How can you determine the moisture content of a concrete block (CMU) wall, and how can you judge when the moisture level is low enough to paint?


How does rapid depressurization affect lining performance in vessels and line pipe, and how can you identify any failure that might result?


What is the best way for me to assure I’m getting what I want when I specify a decorative finish such as glazing or gilding?


How do concrete admixtures such as hardeners and anti-dust compounds affect coating adhesion? What can be done to minimize negative effects?


What is the best way to ensure successful application of an acid stain to an existing horizontal concrete surface?


A specification for a bridge to be built of high-performance weathering steel requires an SSPC-SP 10, a profile of 3 to 5 mils, and metallizing with a final DFT of 10-12 mils. What challenges, time, and costs are associated with obtaining the profile?


Is grinding the only way to remove large areas of a silicone coating from a ship's hull to replace the silicone with an epoxy mastic?


How should surface preparation be conducted in non-sparking atmospheres?


What is the best way to assure compliance with specified dry film coating thickness requirements on vertical concrete?


When performing maintenance surveys on structures that require coatings under insulation, how do you inspect the condition of the coatings?


What are the pros and cons of using shotblasting to remove a coating system from a concrete floor?


The literature indicates that UHP waterjetting produces a profile on steel, although of a micro nature. Is this sufficient roughness for good adhesion of thin-film primers?


Where can I find industry standards for air quality during spray painting operations, specifically regarding moisture, oil and particulates?


Does the presence of non-burst blisters in a coating system always mean that the coating requires replacement?


Considering cost, productivity, and thoroughness, what is the best way to remove paint from cement blocks (CMUs)?


What is the clearest way to specify the degree of smoothness required by surface preparation on an exterior wood substrate covered with deteriorated and uneven layers of paint?


Do you need to wait for the mortar to cure before repainting a brick surface after repointing and power-tool cleaning? If so, how long, and how do you judge when it is safe?


How do you measure wet film thickness on shop-applied organic zinc-rich primers to accurately predict dry film thickness? Our shop applies a great deal of OZ primer, and we have found that WFT readings with a standard gauge are not accurate predictors.


What is the Cold Wall Effect? Can it cause premature coating failure and, if so, how do I prevent it?


What is the maximum number of holidays that should be permitted for linings in immersion service, and why?


Is it sufficient to specify simply that paint should be applied "according to the manufacturer’s instructions?" If not, what detail should be included?


When SSPC-SP3 (Power Tool Cleaning) is specified, how should one decide when to apply the tool to the entire surface and when to use it just where the coating appears defective or rusting?


What is the state-of-the-art treatment and preservation of the many cables used on suspension bridges?


How does residue from chemical stripping affect the performance of the replacement coating?


What is the best way to assure compliance with specified dry film coating thickness requirements on vertical concrete?


As a facility owner, how can I justify the cost of quality control measures, such as third-party inspection, to upper management in my company?


How should surface preparation be conducted in non-sparking atmospheres?


I’ve seen claims of extreme durability for a new concrete floor coating material exposed to heavy foot traffic. Is there a quick test to determine the validity of these claims?


What are the pros and cons of using shotblasting to remove a coating system from a concrete floor?


What kind of surface preparation is most effective and economical before recoating aluminum window frames on a large office building? The original baked-on fluoropolymer has lost most of its gloss.


What kind of initial treatment is the best defense against graffiti for rough-surfaced concrete block (CMU)?


I am the facility manager for a new amusement park that will operate year-round in a hot, humid environment. What protective coating system should I select to achieve the longest useful life (cost is a secondary consideration), and what performance can I expect?


How, besides grinding, can one remove large areas of silicone coating from a ship’s hull to replace the silicone with an epoxy mastic?


When animal fat in slaughterhouses penetrates concrete surfaces, how do you identify and remove the contamination before coating the concrete?


How should a contractor respond to a specification requirement that “the nominal dry film thickness of the coating shall be 3 mils?”


When we use field splice plate connections on structural steel projects, how do we prevent rust and rust staining at bolt heads and at the splice plate/steel interface?


What is the best way to prepare a horizontal concrete surface for successful application of an acid stain?


When performing maintenance surveys on structures that require coatings under insulation, how do you inspect the condition of the coatings?


In what circumstances is third-party inspection recommended for commercial coating work?


How does one apply thin polymer coatings to installed tubes or pipes with diameters of one to three inches and lengths of 20 to 60 feet?


I have several 20-year-old carbon steel tanks for storing demineralized water. The original coating (type unknown) has started to blister. What material, at what DFT, should be used to refurbish the coating?


What environmental and safety precautions must be taken when using chemical stripping and water blasting to remove lead-based paint from a commercial building exterior in an urban business district?


When a food plant runs 24/7, even during coating maintenance, tiny airborne food particles can contaminate a prepared surface. How do you identify, prevent and/or remove such contamination before coating?


What is the best way to remove thick-film elastomers from floors and ship decks?


What is the best method of testing for moisture content in concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls before application of coatings?


Which type of abrasive blasting media is suitable for preparing the more “exotic” stainless steels, such as Inconel or Monel?


What do you do when the surface profile is higher than the dry film thickness of the specified primer?


What type of coating system (and surface prep) should be used to protect a steel factory roof that is subject to hydrochloric acid vapors and other industrial pollutants and particulates in a hot, humid environment?


What’s the best way to determine if a cementitious-based mortar used to repair exterior concrete is ready to be coated?


Under what circumstances is third-party inspection justified on commercial coating work?


I need to remove coatings from masonry on a historic-preservation project. What are my options for doing so without damaging the mortar joints?


Is it practical to use black light to check for dirt or other foreign matter during surface preparation inspection?


What’s the best way to protect a masonry wall from freeze/thaw cycling?


I need to coat a bare concrete warehouse floor that has visible oil stains. What are my options for cleaning the concrete before coating it?


What is the difference between a damp-surface tolerant and a wet-surface tolerant paint? How can we determine when a surface is damp or wet?


What is the risk of damaging a paint film by inspecting a repaired area more than twice with a high-voltage holiday detector?


Do the balcony floor slabs on the high-rise seaside condo I’m working on in Florida really need cathodic protection?


There are ways to increase the pressure for waterjetting to levels above 20,000 psi. What are the effects of different pressures (below and above 20,000 psi) on cleaning ratios?


During a week of heavy rain, we painted the interior of a heated concrete building. The paint blistered badly a week later on the walls with an outside exposure. What’s the best way to remove the coating, prepare the surface, and recoat to prevent future blistering?


What kind of training and credentials are needed in the U.S. for industrial painters who work near live wires?


What errors are most likely to occur when measuring dry film thickness on steel, and how can I avoid them?


I have galvanized steel in direct contact with powder-coated aluminum in an outdoor exposure. The galvanized steel is corroding. What is the best way to remedy the situation?


I keep reading references to sweep blasting, but I can't find a standard for it. What is sweep blasting, and is there a standard for it in the U.S. or elsewhere?


Can fluoropolymer coatings that are still very glossy be overcoated (if, for example, the topcoat is losing color or the color needs to be changed)? If so, what type of coating can be used, and what surface preparation is required?


During a week of heavy rain, we painted the interior walls of a heated concrete building. On the interior of walls that had an outside exposure, the paint blistered badly a week after the rain subsided. Could the rain have caused the blistering and, if so, how?


How do I prepare an oil-stained, bare concrete floor for coating?


How do you prepare flame-cut edges for application of thermal spray metallic coatings? The problem is that these edges are often harder than the abrasive, so a very low profile is produced, resulting in lower-than-specified adhesion of the thermal spray to the steel.


Can fluoropolymer coatings that are still very glossy be overcoated (if, for example, the topcoat is losing color or the color needs to be changed)? If so, what type of coating can be used, and what surface preparation is required?


What tests and criteria can a coatings user specify to assure consistent lot-to-lot performance of supplied coatings?


How do you prepare an oil-stained, bare concrete floor for coating?


Where are errors most likely to occur when measuring dry film thickness on steel, and how can they be avoided?


How does the concave or convex curvature of a surface affect a coating's shore hardness reading?


Why would a pull-off adhesion test give a high value (no failure) for a solventless epoxy that later showed poor adhesion in service?


How does the concave or convex curvature of a surface affect the WFT reading?


What are some ways to improve transfer efficiency of airless spray application?


How do you accurately measure the adhesion of inorganic zinc?


How can I determine when concrete has cured sufficiently to be coated, besides waiting the 28 days typically specified?


How does one accurately measure coating thickness on the inside and outside of a small-diameter (~50mm) pipe?


Should the surfaces of flanges be coated to prevent corrosion? Why or why not?


How does the concave or convex curvature of a surface affect the dry film thickness reading?


Is there a place for using “rust convertors” in heavy-duty maintenance projects?


What is the effect of the wind-chill factor on the curing of epoxy and PU when temperatures are similar?


How do you properly coat welded joints?


What is most effective treatment for steel contaminated with MIC before painting ?


What is the best way to repair localized coating breakdown on steel?


What causes blistering/crater formation in freshly applied polyurethane topcoats, and how can this be avoided?


Can water be sprayed onto an IOZ coated surface, which has not fully cured due to low humid conditions, to accelerate the cure?


What should be included in the risk assessment of a particular painting project?


During newbuilding, do I have to stripe coat edges if I am using an edge retention primer?


Is the MEK rub test a conclusive test to check the cure of IOZ coatings?


How can it be determined if moisture within a CMU wall is causing repeated coating failure? If so, can the source of moisture entry be accurately identified for correction?


What is the correct procedure for carrying out preventive maintenance painting work in a small chemical product tank?


What are the advantages and disadvantages of using mechanical equipment inspectors or welding inspectors, instead of certified coating inspectors, to perform coating inspection duties?


As an engineer in a moderate-sized chemical plant, how can I justify the cost of third-party inspection to upper management?


When should the adhesion of an applied coating or lining multi-coat system be tested?


What’s the best way to prevent corrosion of reinforcing bar in concrete?


How do you strip paint from a cementitious substrate if you can’t alter the surface texture?


Is it cost-effective to pressure wash a bridge or other structure before abrasive blasting? What pressures, flow rates, and procedures are recommended?


Is it cost-effective to grind steel edges before coating for atmospheric service? Why or why not?


What types of measures can be taken on or around metal pipes or columns that penetrate concrete or asphalt paving to reduce corrosion at the interface?


Under what conditions should small-diameter blisters (<1.5 inches) in a water tank lining be repaired/repainted? Should the blisters be broken and the substrate examined?


What causes static electricity during abrasive blasting? What risk does it pose, and how can it be controlled?


What differences in performance and speed do you see among plural-component, conventional airless, and conventional air spraying equipment for field painting structural steel?


How many times can a building be repainted before the paint becomes too thick to perform properly?


What is the proper surface preparation for stainless steel before coating to resist a salt-laden atmosphere?


How long after blasting can stainless steel be left before painting? If this time is exceeded, what further surface preparation is required?


What are the advantages and disadvantages of using mechanical equipment inspectors or welding inspectors, instead of certified coating inspectors, to perform coating inspection duties?


What advantages/disadvantages have you seen with using recycled glass abrasives vs. traditional abrasives?


What coating problems are likely in storage tanks that have dissimilar metal sides and floors?


When blasting cast-iron structural steelwork, what type of defects might be found, and how do you address them?


How do you remove all traces of an uncured internal coating from a tank when abrasive blasting is not an option?


In preparing for coating, what is the best way to treat a steel surface that has been attacked by microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC)?


What is the best way to achieve proper surface preparation in areas with limited access, such as interior box beams on bridges?


What are the most effective procedures for protecting steel and adjacent concrete together?


How long can a blasted surface be left before priming under different temperatures/relative humidity environments?


How do you protect concrete against microbiologically influenced corrosion?


How do I minimize corrosion at the splash zone on sheet pile and piping in brackish water?


How can active corrosion be determined on a live pipeline?


How do you determine if local water is suitable for use in UHP waterjetting, particularly in areas where potable water is scarce?


What’s the best way to prevent corrosion of reinforcing bar in concrete?


If a paint data sheet notes a required primer thickness of 125 microns, but the project specification calls for 50 microns, how is this resolved?


Some painting specifications call for the use of “Best Effort” in relation to blasting. How does one determine “Best Effort?”


How do you adequately assess the adhesion of a newly applied coating?


What measures must you take to determine and assure the cleanliness of an abrasive?


When the relative humidity in a paint shop exceeds 80%, how can you apply waterborne inorganic zinc so that it cures sufficiently for topcoating in a reasonable time?


What is the best method for removing production machine oils soaked deeply into a concrete floor before applying a non-skid coating?


When performing maintenance painting of tank coatings, what are the pros and cons of overcoating an existing lining that appears to be in good condition?


How do you measure the DFT or WFT of a film-forming sealer applied to a metallized coating (e.g., flame-sprayed zinc)?


What is the best method for preparing newly galvanized steel to be overcoated with an epoxy system?


When should you specify UHP waterjetting on bridges?


When applying a 100% solids, fast-curing polyurea coating on concrete, what is the best method for verifying that the proper thickness has been applied?


How do you calibrate a DFT gauge in the magnetic field of a live power plant to measure coatings on steel substrates?


Are there special primers and surface preparation requirements for painting unpainted aluminum?


Is it necessary to holiday test the interior lining in the vapor phase (roof) of water storage tanks after coating?


Specifications often state that glossy surfaces must be dulled before overcoating. What are some methods for doing this, especially when sanding isn’t feasible or desirable?


How do you successfully apply a chemical-resistant lining to the interior of small-diameter pipes (3 inches or less)?


How should a conflict between requirements, such as film thickness, on a product data sheet and the specification be resolved?


How can I determine the cleanliness of stainless steel for painting after blast cleaning?


What are the options for shop-applied systems (surface preparation and coating type) to protect the interiors and exteriors of new saltwater storage tanks and associated steelwork that will be exposed to seawater, and that will allow for easy touchup and maintenance once the structures are erected?


What is the remedial action if a blaster produces too high a surface profile for the required primer thickness?


Lighthouse Painting: I'm with a Massachusetts municipal park department and have been ordered by the city's administration to "get the lighthouse painted." I know there's far more to it than just grabbing a brush and a can of paint. I need to know how to write specifications for a bid for such a project, as well as how to locate companies that might want the job. Since I'm starting from scratch here, any information or references would be greatly appreciated.

Submitted by reader William Woolley


What steps must be taken to mitigate poor adhesion over an existing aged silver aluminum paint? What primer will achieve good adhesion?


Which DFT statistics should be recorded in a daily inspection report, and why are they relevant to a good coating QC record?


What is the preferred method to remove 25-year-old coal tar epoxy from a carbon steel tank in order to reline?


What smartphone apps or online tools do you find useful in your job? How do they work, and how have they benefited you?


When a specification calls for removal of only loose coating rather than complete coating removal from a masonry substrate, what surface preparation methods are most likely to work without damaging the intact coating that is left on the surface?


What percentage of deterioration is acceptable at a one-year warranty inspection of water tank linings before a contractor must repair the coating job?


What is best way to remedy over-thickness of a topcoat after it has dried and cured?


A specification requires Manufacturer X’s system “or equivalent.” What does “or equivalent” mean, and who decides what’s “equivalent?”


How do you gauge the remaining service life of an aging FBE system on a buried transmission pipeline?


How clean must the compressed-air supply be for blast cleaning, blow down and painting? How is cleanliness of the air determined?


Under what conditions should stainless steel be painted in the oil and gas industry?


How does rapid depressurization affect lining performance in vessels and line pipe, and how can you identify any failure that might result?


When implementing an in-plant, exterior exposure, or accelerated testing program for coatings, should the test panels be scribed? Why?


What is the effect on the permeability of a coating when you add additional coats, either at the time of the original painting or as a maintenance activity?


Do you need to wait for the mortar to cure before repainting a brick surface after repointing and power-tool cleaning to remove loosely adhered coating material from a previous paint job? If so, how long, and is there a way to judge when it is safe?


How do you measure wet film thickness on shop-applied organic zinc-rich primers to accurately predict dry film thickness?

Our shop applies a great deal of OZ primer, and we have found that WFT readings with a standard gauge are not accurate predictors of DFT.


What is the maximum number of holidays that should be permitted for linings used in immersion service, and why?


How does residue from chemical stripping affect the performance of the replacement coating?


As a facility owner, how can I justify the cost of quality control measures, such as third-party inspection, to upper management in my company?


How should surface preparation be conducted in non-sparking atmospheres?


When performing maintenance surveys on structures that require coatings under insulation, how do you inspect the condition of the coatings?


What is the Cold Wall Effect? Can it cause premature coating failure and, if so, how do I prevent or minimize it?


How much detail should be included in a specification for the surface preparation and painting of a parking garage exterior that includes tilt-up and structural concrete substrates?


Is it sufficient to specify simply that paint should be applied "according to the manufacturer’s instructions?" If not, what kind of detail should be included?


What is the clearest way to specify the degree of smoothness that you want to be achieved by surface preparation on an exterior wood substrate that is covered with deteriorated, uneven, and built-up layers of paint?


What quality control checks can I use to assure the cleanliness of steel abrasive in a fabricator's or shipyard's shop?


When we use field splice plate connections on structural steel projects, how do we prevent rust and rust staining at bolt heads and at the splice plate/steel interface?


In what circumstances is third-party inspection is justified on commercial coating work?


I am the facility manager for a new amusement park that will operate year-round in a hot, humid environment. Some critical structural steel in the heart of the park needs to be protected from corrosion and at the same time to retain very good appearance properties for as long as possible, since maintenance painting is disruptive. What coating system should I select to achieve the longest useful life, given that cost is a secondary consideration, and how long will this system look good while providing corrosion protection?


What kind of surface preparation prior to coating will be effective and at the same time economical for the aluminum window frames on a large commercial office building? The aluminum was coated originally with a baked-on fluoropolymer which has lost most of its gloss. Maintenance recoating will be with an air-dry fluoropolymer.


What kind of coating system, including surface preparation, should be used to protect a steel factory roof that is subject to hydrochloric acid vapors and other industrial pollutants and particulates in a hot, humid environment?


What are the alternatives for removing mildew from previously uncoated concrete block exteriors before coating?


 
 
   

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