Problem Solving Forum (370)


RH probes are commonly used in concrete floors to determine moisture content. Can they be used in CMU walls or pre-cast walls?


Considering substitute power tool manual excess rust scale removal before abrasive blasting with HP / UHP water jetting. What could be recommended pressure / flow ratio for excess and poorly adherent material removal? I have limited water supply available (about 15-20 liters / minute). Abrasive blasting thereafter is a must because of the specification.


For st.2/st.3 prepared surfaces like luffing crane refurbishment in marine c5, environmental condition can extend warranties, or any standard guideline or in-meeting specific criteria warranty can be offered. Paint manufacturers sometimes do offer, but is there any set guideline for them?


How do you determine if local water is suitable for use in UHP waterjetting, particularly in areas where potable water is scarce?


What are the essential books a Coating Inspector and/or foreman might want to have in his Library?


What are the pros and cons of using shotblasting to remove a coating system from a concrete floor?


What do you do when the surface profile is higher than the dry film thickness of the specified primer?


When coating an aged concrete floor, how should one determine the correct sequence of surface preparation among the options of pressure washing and grinding or other concrete removal and roughening methods?


How do you strip paint from a cementitious substrate if you can’t alter the surface texture?


How do you use smartphone apps on the job? What tasks or needs does your phone or tablet help with during the course of a day?


What is the function of an air receiver during blasting?


What is the remedial action if a blaster produces too high a surface profile for the required primer thickness?


When should you specify UHP waterjetting on bridges?


How do you determine whether a lead-bearing coating can be overcoated or removed and replaced?


How do you adequately assess the adhesion of a newly applied coating?


I need to embed a metallized culvert liner on concrete. I've been told I have to paint it to avoid adhesion problems between the metal liner and the concrete. Is this true and, if so, what type of coating is best?


What abrasive should be used to prepare stainless steel?


How should a conflict between requirements, such as film thickness, on a product data sheet and the specification be resolved?


How can I determine the cleanliness of stainless steel for painting after blast cleaning?


In what types of climates and/or environments is the use of a vapor-impermeable air/moisture barrier recommended as opposed to a vapor-permeable system? Are there guidelines or standards that can help determine this?


When SSPC-SP3 (Power Tool Cleaning) is specified, how should one decide when to apply the tool to the entire surface and when to use it just where the coating appears defective or rusting?


Can glass abrasives be used for surface preparation of carbon steel in shipyards?


What are some ways to improve transfer efficiency of airless spray application?


What environmental and safety precautions need to be taken when removing lead-based paint from the brick on a commercial building adjacent to the sidewalk in a dense urban business district when the removal method is chemical stripping followed by water blasting?


What causes static electricity during abrasive blasting? What risk does it pose, and how can it be controlled?


Considering cost, productivity, and thoroughness, what is the best way to remove paint from cement blocks (CMUs)?


When SSPC-SP3 (Power Tool Cleaning) is specified, how should one decide when to apply the power tool to the entire surface and when to use it just where the coating appears to be defective or rusting?


As a facility owner, how can I justify the cost of quality control measures, such as third-party inspection, to upper management in my company?


What confined-space rescue protocol (internal, third party, etc.) have you developed, and why did you choose this plan?


As a facility owner, how can I justify the cost of quality control measures, such as third-party inspection, to upper management in my company?


What is the clearest way to specify the degree of smoothness that you want to be achieved by surface preparation on an exterior wood substrate that is covered with deteriorated, uneven, and built-up layers of paint?


How do you account for the profile of blasted steel when taking a dry film thickness reading?


There are ways to increase the pressure for waterjetting to levels above 20,000 psi. What are the effects of different pressures (below and above 20,000 psi) on cleaning ratios?


What is the best method for removing a day-glo orange spray graffiti from a brick wall?


What is the best way to assure compliance with specified dry film coating thickness requirements on vertical concrete?


Do you need to wait for the mortar to cure before repainting a brick surface after repointing and power-tool cleaning? If so, how long, and how do you judge when it is safe?


What is the clearest way to specify the degree of smoothness required by surface preparation on an exterior wood substrate covered with deteriorated and uneven layers of paint?


What type of generic coating is required to protect the inside of a tank containing liquid with pH ranging from 2 to 13 and operated at 65-80 degrees Celsius? Why?


Is it sufficient to specify simply that paint should be applied "according to the manufacturer’s instructions?" If not, what kind of detail should be included?


What is the effect of the wind-chill factor on the curing of epoxy and PU when temperatures are similar?


I am the facility manager for a new amusement park that will operate year-round in a hot, humid environment. Some critical structural steel in the heart of the park needs to be protected from corrosion and at the same time to retain very good appearance properties for as long as possible, since maintenance painting is disruptive. What coating system should I select to achieve the longest useful life, given that cost is a secondary consideration, and how long will this system look good while providing corrosion protection?


What are the advantages and disadvantages of using mechanical equipment inspectors or welding inspectors, instead of certified coating inspectors, to perform coating inspection duties?


Your field surface preparation requires SSPC SP-10 and your field bolting uses hot-dip galvanized bolts. What surface preparation do you require/allow on and around the bolts?


Does roller nap decrease the lifespan of a three-coat OZEU (organic zinc prime coat, an epoxy intermediate coat, and a urethane finish coat) paint system? Is there a visual guide or specification for this in the industry or test results available for study?


If an atmospheric coating system of a zinc-rich epoxy, epoxy mid coat and polyurethane color topcoat has properly cured with no visual defects, should I be worried if the thickness of any coat exceeds any specified maximum?


What is the difference between a damp-surface tolerant and a wet-surface tolerant paint? How can we determine when a surface is damp or wet?


What type of coating system (and surface prep) should be used to protect a steel factory roof that is subject to hydrochloric acid vapors and other industrial pollutants and particulates in a hot, humid environment?


What is the optimal moisture content for masonry before painting can begin?


What errors are most likely to occur when measuring dry film thickness on steel, and how can I avoid them?


Where are errors most likely to occur when measuring dry film thickness on steel, and how can they be avoided?


What are the criteria for selecting coatings for application during extreme (atmospheric) heat?


Specifications often state that glossy surfaces must be dulled before overcoating. What are some methods for doing this, especially when sanding isn’t feasible?


What advantages/disadvantages have you seen with using recycled glass abrasives vs. traditional abrasives?


What are the pros and cons of specifying sieve sizes for abrasives?


When a specification calls for removing only loose coating from a masonry substrate, what methods are effective without damaging the intact coating that is left on the surface?


Is there any problem measuring the DFT of an MIO coating using an electromagnetic induction gauge?


Is it practical to use black light to check for dirt or other foreign matter during surface preparation inspection?


What causes static electricity during abrasive blasting? What risk does it pose, and how can it be controlled?


We are restricted to applying road marking paints during hot, humid summer nights, on surfaces very often below dew point conditions. What is the best generic type of marking paint to use?


At what percentage of relative humidity and temperature, is amine blush likely to occur?


Theoretically, how many LEED credits can be acquired for a newly constructed building through the use of coatings and related technologies, such as diamond-polished concrete?


How long can a blasted surface be left before priming under different temperatures/relative humidity environments?


What is the difference between the coalescence mechanism and the solvent evaporation mechanism regarding the paint film formation?


How does the concave or convex curvature of a surface affect a coating's shore hardness reading?


How does the concave or convex curvature of a surface affect the WFT reading?


What measures must you take to determine and assure the cleanliness of an abrasive?


When should you specify UHP waterjetting on bridges?


What is the remedial action if a blaster produces too high a surface profile for the required primer thickness?


When implementing an in-plant, exterior exposure, or accelerated testing program for coatings, should the test panels be scribed? Why?


How do you measure wet film thickness on shop-applied organic zinc-rich primers to accurately predict dry film thickness?


The first step of using replica tape to measure surface profile (i.e ISO 8503-5) is choosing the right tape e.g Coarse and X-Coarse. But without any data about blasting surface, how we can choose the right replica tape corresponding to the surface profile?


The literature indicates that UHP waterjetting does produce a profile on steel, although of a micro nature. Is this sufficient roughness for good adhesion of thin film primers (e.g. < 2 mils dft)?


What are the pros and cons of using shotblasting to remove a coating system from a concrete floor?


How can you justify the cost of installing an auto-blast machine and a paint booth in a fabricator's shop, and what resources are available to carry out such an analysis?


When SSPC-SP3 (Power Tool Cleaning) is specified, how should one decide when to apply the power tool to the entire surface and when to use it just where the coating appears to be defective or rusting?


What is the best way to achieve proper surface preparation in areas with limited access, such as interior box beams on bridges?


How do you determine if steel shot or grit for centrifugal/wheel blasting need to be replaced?


When a food plant runs 24/7, even during coating maintenance, tiny airborne food particles can contaminate a prepared surface. How do you identify, prevent and/or remove such contamination before coating?


What quality control checks can I use to assure the cleanliness of steel abrasive in a fabricator's or shipyard's shop?


How do you maintain a proper operating mix of recyclable abrasive in the field?


What is best media to use to remove aged epoxy coal tar from a steel tank before re-lining?


Does roller nap decrease the lifespan of a three-coat OZEU (organic zinc prime coat, an epoxy intermediate coat and a urethane finish coat) paint system? Is there a visual guide or specification for this in the industry or test results available for study?


How do you assess salts and other non-visible contaminants on concrete surfaces?


Where are errors most likely to occur when measuring dry film thickness on steel, and how can they be avoided?


What is the correct procedure for carrying out preventive maintenance painting work in a small chemical product tank?


How does concave or convex curvature of a surface affect the WFT reading?


How do you calibrate a DFT gauge in the magnetic field of a live power plant to measure coatings on steel substrates?


What measures must be taken to determine and assure the cleanliness of an abrasive?


Is there any method to take accurate wet film thickness readings when applying zinc rich primers?


How do you remove all traces of an uncured internal coating from a tank when abrasive blasting is not an option?


What smartphone apps or online tools do you find useful in your job? How do they work, and how have they benefited you?


Is grinding the only way to remove large areas of a silicone coating from a ship's hull to replace the silicone with an epoxy mastic?


When a specification calls for removal of only loose coating rather than complete coating removal from a masonry substrate, what surface preparation methods are most likely to work without damaging the intact coating that is left on the surface?


How should surface preparation be conducted in non-sparking atmospheres?


What causes bubbling or cratering of an epoxy intermediate coat when applied over epoxy zinc-rich primer?


How does the concave or convex curvature of a surface affect the dry film thickness reading?


Is there a place for using “rust convertors” in heavy-duty maintenance projects?


What is the effect of the wind-chill factor on the curing of epoxy and PU when temperatures are similar?


How does residue from chemical stripping affect the performance of the replacement coating?


When SSPC-SP 3 (Power Tool Cleaning) is specified, how should one decide when to apply the tool to the entire surface and when to use it just where the coating appears defective or rusting?


How much detail should be included in a specification for the surface preparation and painting of a parking garage exterior that includes tilt-up and structural concrete substrates?


What are some ways to improve transfer efficiency of airless spray application?


What type of coating system (and surface prep) should be used to protect a steel factory roof that is subject to hydrochloric acid vapors and other industrial pollutants and particulates in a hot, humid environment?


What environmental and safety precautions need to be taken when removing lead-based paint from the brick on a commercial building adjacent to the sidewalk in a dense urban business district when the removal method is chemical stripping followed by water blasting?


Is it sufficient to specify simply that paint should be applied "according to the manufacturer’s instructions?" If not, what kind of detail should be included?


What is the best way to assure compliance with specified dry film coating thickness requirements on vertical concrete?


How does abrasive recycling affect cleaning rates when steel is blast-cleaned in the field?


Is there a definitive relationship between mechanical properties of coatings (such as elongation and tensile strength) and crack-bridging capability?


Which type of abrasive blasting media is suitable for preparing the more “exotic” stainless steels, such as Inconel or Monel?


What do you do when the surface profile is higher than the dry film thickness of the specified primer?


I need to coat a bare concrete warehouse floor that has visible oil stains. What are my options for cleaning the concrete before coating it?


What causes static electricity during abrasive blasting? What risk does it pose, and how can it be controlled?


What is the proper surface preparation for stainless steel before coating to resist a salt-laden atmosphere?


What are the advantages and disadvantages of using mechanical equipment inspectors or welding inspectors, instead of certified coating inspectors, to perform coating inspection duties?


What is the best low-maintenance approach to coating power-tool-cleaned field weld joints on process pipework that is protected with thermal-sprayed aluminum?


What pluses and minuses have you seen with using recycled-glass abrasives vs. traditional abrasives?


How do you prepare flame-cut edges for application of thermal spray metallic coatings? The problem is that these edges are often harder than the abrasive, so a very low profile is produced, resulting in lower-than-specified adhesion of the thermal spray to the steel.


How pure must fresh water be for water washing or waterjetting, and how do you determine the water’s purity?


What is the best way to achieve proper surface preparation in areas with limited access, such as interior box beams on bridges?


How do you determine if local water is suitable for use in UHP waterjetting, particularly in areas where potable water is scarce?


When is it cost-effective to use thermal spray in petrochemical facilities?


Is it necessary to holiday test the interior lining in the vapor phase (roof) of water storage tanks after coating?


Which DFT statistics should be recorded in a daily inspection report, and why are they relevant to a good coating QC record?


If a zinc rich epoxy primer has been applied at lower than the specified thickness, how should this be treated?


We need to paint our publicly owned lighthouse. What should I include in the specifications for this bid regarding surface preparation, coating systems, and other considerations?


How do you use smartphone apps on the job? What tasks or needs does your phone or tablet help with during the course of a day?


When performing maintenance painting of tank coatings, what are the pros and cons of overcoating an existing lining that appears to be in good condition?


What are the pros and cons of using shotblasting to remove a coating system from a concrete floor?


How do you determine the size of the dehumidification equipment required for a tank lining project?


How do you best remove lubricants and other contaminants from field-bolted connections prior to painting?


What is the function of an air receiver during blasting?


Under what types of exterior atmospheric exposures (other than marine) is it necessary to test for soluble salts?


What errors are most likely to occur when measuring dry film thickness on steel, and how can I avoid them?


How do you repair polyurea coatings?


What is the correct gauge type and probe for measuring coating thickness of a super duplex stainless steel system with epoxy and polyurethane?


What are the advantages and disadvantages of using mechanical equipment inspectors or welding inspectors, instead of certified coating inspectors, to perform coating inspection duties?


How long after blasting can stainless steel be left before painting? If this time is exceeded, what further surface preparation is required?


What is the best method for preparing newly galvanized steel to be overcoated with an epoxy system?


What abrasive should be used to prepare stainless steel?


How do you overcoat an aged inorganic zinc coating?


How do I prepare an oil-stained, bare concrete floor for coating?


When applying a 100% solids, fast-curing polyurea coating on concrete, what is the best method for verifying that the proper thickness has been applied?


What are the criteria for selecting coatings for application during extreme (atmospheric) heat?


When SSPC-SP3 (Power Tool Cleaning) is specified, how should one decide when to apply the tool to the entire surface and when to use it just where the coating appears defective or rusting?


What causes static electricity during abrasive blasting? What risk does it pose, and how can it be controlled?


When should you specify UHP waterjetting on bridges?


Which is the ideal test method (ASTM/ ISO) to test the flexibility of a lining product (organic coating) to be applied on concrete storage tanks to store brine water?


How can I determine the cleanliness of stainless steel for painting after blast cleaning?


How do you account for the profile of blasted steel when taking a dry film thickness reading?


There are ways to increase the pressure for waterjetting to levels above 20,000 psi. What are the effects of different pressures (below and above 20,000 psi) on cleaning ratios?


What causes a persistent green/yellow hue on steel that has been exposed for a number of years in close proximity to the ocean, and how should the steel be prepared for painting?


Should pull-off adhesion tests be carried out on a zinc-rich primer alone, or only on a complete system?


What are the alternatives for removing mildew from uncoated concrete block exteriors before coating?


What is the best way to remedy over-thickness of a topcoat after it has dried and cured?


How do you abrasive-blast the interior surfaces of steel or ductile iron pipe scheduled to receive a high-build, high-performance protective lining system?


How do you gauge the remaining service life of an aging FBE system on a buried transmission pipeline?


Is there any method to take accurate wet film thickness readings when applying zinc rich primers?


Can fluoropolymer coatings that are still very glossy be overcoated (if, for example, the topcoat is losing color or the color needs to be changed)? If so, what type of coating can be used, and what surface preparation is required?


How clean must the compressed-air supply be for blast cleaning, blow down and painting? How is cleanliness of the air determined?


How do concrete admixtures such as hardeners and anti-dust compounds affect coating adhesion? What can be done to minimize negative effects?


After applying a thermal spray coating on a petrochemical industry live line that operates at 48 degrees Celsius (118 degrees Fahrenheit), the coating sustained a brown discoloration on the bottom of the pipe. What would cause this discoloration of a TSA coating?


What is the best way to remove thick-film elastomers from floors and ship decks?


In reviewing the testing data for adhesion, some manufacturers indicate ASTM D4541 results while others show ASTM C3359 results. Is it possible to compare one against the other? For example, does 1037 psi provide better adhesion than 4A?


Is grinding the only way to remove large areas of a silicone coating from a ship's hull to replace the silicone with an epoxy mastic?


How should surface preparation be conducted in non-sparking atmospheres?


What is the best way to assure compliance with specified dry film coating thickness requirements on vertical concrete?


How does abrasive recycling affect cleaning rates when steel is blast-cleaned in the field?


When performing maintenance surveys on structures that require coatings under insulation, how do you inspect the condition of the coatings?


Is there a definitive relationship between mechanical properties of coatings (such as elongation and tensile strength) and crack-bridging capability?


What kind of surface preparation prior to coating will be effective and at the same time economical for the aluminum window frames on a large commercial office building? The aluminum was coated originally with a baked-on fluoropolymer which has lost most of its gloss. Maintenance recoating will be with an air-dry fluoropolymer.


What coating or lining system, including surface preparation, should be used on an in-ground swimming pool constructed of galvanized steel in a northern climate?


Is it practical to use black light to check for dirt or other foreign matter during surface preparation inspection?


What is the risk of damaging a paint film by inspecting a repaired area more than twice with a high-voltage holiday detector?


How does one apply thin polymer coatings to installed tubes or pipes with diameters of one to three inches and lengths of 20 to 60 feet?


What errors are most likely to occur when measuring dry film thickness on steel, and how can I avoid them?


When coating an aged concrete floor, how should one determine the correct sequence of surface preparation among the options of pressure washing and grinding or other concrete removal and roughening methods?


Can fluoropolymer coatings that are still very glossy be overcoated (if, for example, the topcoat is losing color or the color needs to be changed)? If so, what type of coating can be used, and what surface preparation is required?


When planning containment for blasting, what are the most important factors to consider?


What tests and criteria can a coatings user specify to assure consistent lot-to-lot performance of supplied coatings?


Where are errors most likely to occur when measuring dry film thickness on steel, and how can they be avoided?


For coatings with a high-solids content (95 percent or more), what kinds of defects, such as holidays or micropores, are possible or likely to occur in the applied film? How can these be prevented or remedied?


How do you prepare flame-cut edges for application of thermal spray metallic coatings? The problem is that these edges are often harder than the abrasive, so a very low profile is produced, resulting in lower-than-specified adhesion of the thermal spray to the steel.


Why would a pull-off adhesion test give a high value (no failure) for a solventless epoxy that later showed poor adhesion in service?


How do you accurately measure the adhesion of inorganic zinc?


What are some ways to improve transfer efficiency of airless spray application?


When SSPC-SP3 (Power Tool Cleaning) is specified, how should one decide when to apply the tool to the entire surface and when to use it just where the coating appears defective or rusting?


What are the pros and cons of using shotblasting to remove a coating system from a concrete floor?


How does the concave or convex curvature of a surface affect the dry film thickness reading?


What is the effect of the wind-chill factor on the curing of epoxy and PU when temperatures are similar?


What is the maximum temperature that an epoxy powder coating can resist when applied on steel substrate?


What is the best way to assure compliance with specified dry film coating thickness requirements on vertical concrete?


What are the alternatives for removing mildew from uncoated concrete block exteriors before coating?


What is best media to use to remove aged epoxy coal tar from a steel tank before re-lining?


Does roller nap decrease the lifespan of a three-coat OZEU (organic zinc prime coat, an epoxy intermediate coat, and a urethane finish coat) paint system? Is there a visual guide or specification for this in the industry or test results available for study?


What is the best method for removing fluorescent orange spray graffiti from a brick wall?


In what circumstances is third-party inspection recommended for commercial coating work?


Your field surface preparation requires SSPC SP-10 and your field bolting uses hot-dip galvanized bolts. What surface preparation do you require/allow on and around the bolts?


How do you best remove lubricants and other contaminants from field-bolted connections prior to painting?


Animal fat in slaughterhouses often penetrates concrete surfaces. If the fat is not removed before the concrete is coated, the fat can cause the coating to fail. How do you identify and remove the contamination before coating the concrete?


How do you determine the size of the dehumidification equipment required for a tank lining project?


How should a contractor respond when he/she reads a specification requirement that "the nominal dry film thickness of the coating shall be 3 mils"?


What is the best way to remove thick film elastomers from floors and ship decks?


What criteria should an owner use to determine whether to specify full removal or spot- or zone-repair on a maintenance project?


I need to remove coatings from masonry on a historic-preservation project. What are my options for doing so without damaging the mortar joints?


On a recent project, complex pre-fabricated, hot-dipped galvanized panels exhibited thicknesses in the range required for the entire subsequent coating system. It was not practical or possible to accurately map the thickness of the galvanizing across all the various parts, and DFT gauges available only measure the entire non-ferrous coating, including the galvanizing. How should thickness-per-coat minimums and maximums be controlled and verified for subsequent coatings?


If an atmospheric coating system of a zinc-rich epoxy, epoxy mid coat and polyurethane color topcoat has properly cured with no visual defects, should I be worried if the thickness of any coat exceeds any specified maximum?


Some specifications may have requirements that the inspector may know to be extraneous or may be more restrictive than necessary to obtain a quality coating application. What is the ethical responsibility of the inspector to reject non-conforming coatings that they know will perform as intended, particularly where attempted repairs may degrade the coating system?


Under what types of exterior atmospheric exposures (other than marine) is it necessary to test for soluble salts?


What causes static electricity during abrasive blasting? What risk does it pose, and how can it be controlled?


What are the advantages and disadvantages of using mechanical equipment inspectors or welding inspectors, instead of certified coating inspectors, to perform coating inspection duties?


What advantages/disadvantages have you seen with using recycled glass abrasives vs. traditional abrasives?


How pure must fresh water be for water washing or waterjetting, and how do you determine the water’s purity?


What is the best method for protecting cables on suspension bridges from corrosion?


How does the concave or convex curvature of a surface affect the dry film thickness reading?


What are the criteria for selecting coatings for application during extreme (atmospheric) heat?


How long after blasting can stainless steel be left before painting? If this time is exceeded, what further surface preparation is required?


What are the pros and cons of specifying sieve sizes for abrasives?


How do you remove all traces of an uncured internal coating from a tank when abrasive blasting is not an option?


If the walls of single-wythe CMU with core fill insulation become saturated, can they be adequately dried out for painting? If so, how?


What is the best way to achieve proper surface preparation in areas with limited access, such as interior box beams on bridges?


How do you strip paint from a cementitious substrate if you can’t alter the surface texture?


How many times can a building be repainted before the paint becomes too thick to perform properly?


How long can a blasted surface be left before priming under different temperatures/relative humidity environments?


What is the proper surface preparation for stainless steel before coating to resist a salt-laden atmosphere?


How do you determine if local water is suitable for use in UHP waterjetting, particularly in areas where potable water is scarce?


How do you adequately assess the adhesion of a newly applied coating?


What pluses and minuses have you seen with using recycled-glass abrasives vs. traditional abrasives?


What measures must be taken to determine and assure the cleanliness of an abrasive?


When is it necessary to install sealant between the base of building walls and concrete sidewalks or pavement to prevent moisture from wicking up the wall? How does the climate affect this decision?


What is the best method for removing production machine oils soaked deeply into a concrete floor before applying a non-skid coating?


When refurbishing an old concrete secondary containment wall around a storage tank, what criteria should be used to determine if a crack can be repaired for coating or if the section of the wall should be rebuilt?


How pure must fresh water be for water washing or waterjetting, and how do you determine the water’s purity?


What can be done to prevent rust bleed in crevices when applying a zinc/epoxy/urethane system?


How long after blasting can stainless steel be left before painting? If this time is exceeded, what further surface preparation is required?


When applying a 100% solids, fast-curing polyurea coating on concrete, what is the best method for verifying that the proper thickness has been applied?


Which generic coating systems are suitable for protecting pipeline internals carrying highly abrasive media?


What are the criteria for selecting coatings for application during extreme (atmospheric) heat?


Are there special primers and surface preparation requirements for painting unpainted aluminum?


How do you calibrate a DFT gauge in the magnetic field of a live power plant to measure coatings on steel substrates?


I’ve heard that the use of the proper blast media is critical for the successful application of thermal spray aluminum and other metallics. What mechanism would lead to the differing performance characteristics of the TSA based on the blast media?


How should a conflict between requirements, such as film thickness, on a product data sheet and the specification be resolved?


Under what conditions should you apply a resurfacing mortar to new, below-grade vertical concrete scheduled to receive a high-build, protective lining system for chemical containment or immersion service?


We need to paint our publicly owned lighthouse. What should I include in the specifications for this bid regarding surface preparation, coating systems, and other considerations?


I’ve heard about using crystalline admixture or crystalline materials on top of concrete to fill voids and make the substrate less permeable. When is this desirable, and what is the best way to use these materials?


When a specification calls for removing only loose coating from a masonry substrate, what methods are effective without damaging the intact coating that is left on the surface?


What is best way to remedy over-thickness of a topcoat after it has dried and cured?


How does one determine if concrete is sound enough to receive a thick-film coating?


How do you assess vertical concrete surface pH after surface preparation of existing concrete?


How clean must the compressed-air supply be for blast cleaning, blow down and painting? How is cleanliness of the air determined?


What is the best way to ensure successful application of an acid stain to an existing horizontal concrete surface?


A specification for a bridge to be built of high-performance weathering steel requires an SSPC-SP 10, a profile of 3 to 5 mils, and metallizing with a final DFT of 10-12 mils. What challenges, time, and costs are associated with obtaining the profile?


Is grinding the only way to remove large areas of a silicone coating from a ship's hull to replace the silicone with an epoxy mastic?


How should surface preparation be conducted in non-sparking atmospheres?


What is the best way to assure compliance with specified dry film coating thickness requirements on vertical concrete?


What are the pros and cons of using shotblasting to remove a coating system from a concrete floor?


The literature indicates that UHP waterjetting produces a profile on steel, although of a micro nature. Is this sufficient roughness for good adhesion of thin-film primers?


Where can I find industry standards for air quality during spray painting operations, specifically regarding moisture, oil and particulates?


Considering cost, productivity, and thoroughness, what is the best way to remove paint from cement blocks (CMUs)?


What is the clearest way to specify the degree of smoothness required by surface preparation on an exterior wood substrate covered with deteriorated and uneven layers of paint?


Do you need to wait for the mortar to cure before repainting a brick surface after repointing and power-tool cleaning? If so, how long, and how do you judge when it is safe?


How do you measure wet film thickness on shop-applied organic zinc-rich primers to accurately predict dry film thickness? Our shop applies a great deal of OZ primer, and we have found that WFT readings with a standard gauge are not accurate predictors.


Is it sufficient to specify simply that paint should be applied "according to the manufacturer’s instructions?" If not, what detail should be included?


When SSPC-SP3 (Power Tool Cleaning) is specified, how should one decide when to apply the tool to the entire surface and when to use it just where the coating appears defective or rusting?


What generic types of coatings work best as liquid-applied air barriers, considering both cost and effectiveness, and what should be the dry film thickness of this system?


How does residue from chemical stripping affect the performance of the replacement coating?


What is the best way to assure compliance with specified dry film coating thickness requirements on vertical concrete?


As a facility owner, how can I justify the cost of quality control measures, such as third-party inspection, to upper management in my company?


How should surface preparation be conducted in non-sparking atmospheres?


What kind of surface preparation is most effective and economical before recoating aluminum window frames on a large office building? The original baked-on fluoropolymer has lost most of its gloss.


How, besides grinding, can one remove large areas of silicone coating from a ship’s hull to replace the silicone with an epoxy mastic?


When animal fat in slaughterhouses penetrates concrete surfaces, how do you identify and remove the contamination before coating the concrete?


How should a contractor respond to a specification requirement that “the nominal dry film thickness of the coating shall be 3 mils?”


What is the best way to prepare a horizontal concrete surface for successful application of an acid stain?


How does one apply thin polymer coatings to installed tubes or pipes with diameters of one to three inches and lengths of 20 to 60 feet?


I have several 20-year-old carbon steel tanks for storing demineralized water. The original coating (type unknown) has started to blister. What material, at what DFT, should be used to refurbish the coating?


What environmental and safety precautions must be taken when using chemical stripping and water blasting to remove lead-based paint from a commercial building exterior in an urban business district?


When a food plant runs 24/7, even during coating maintenance, tiny airborne food particles can contaminate a prepared surface. How do you identify, prevent and/or remove such contamination before coating?


What is the best way to remove thick-film elastomers from floors and ship decks?


How does abrasive recycling affect cleaning rates when steel is blast-cleaned in the field?


What is the best method of testing for moisture content in concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls before application of coatings?


Which type of abrasive blasting media is suitable for preparing the more “exotic” stainless steels, such as Inconel or Monel?


What do you do when the surface profile is higher than the dry film thickness of the specified primer?


I need to remove coatings from masonry on a historic-preservation project. What are my options for doing so without damaging the mortar joints?


Is it practical to use black light to check for dirt or other foreign matter during surface preparation inspection?


I need to coat a bare concrete warehouse floor that has visible oil stains. What are my options for cleaning the concrete before coating it?


There are ways to increase the pressure for waterjetting to levels above 20,000 psi. What are the effects of different pressures (below and above 20,000 psi) on cleaning ratios?


What errors are most likely to occur when measuring dry film thickness on steel, and how can I avoid them?


I keep reading references to sweep blasting, but I can't find a standard for it. What is sweep blasting, and is there a standard for it in the U.S. or elsewhere?


How do I prepare an oil-stained, bare concrete floor for coating?


What are the best practices for a small maintenance shipyard (120m x 20m x 8m drydock) to handle UHP-generated wastes?


How do you prepare flame-cut edges for application of thermal spray metallic coatings? The problem is that these edges are often harder than the abrasive, so a very low profile is produced, resulting in lower-than-specified adhesion of the thermal spray to the steel.


Can fluoropolymer coatings that are still very glossy be overcoated (if, for example, the topcoat is losing color or the color needs to be changed)? If so, what type of coating can be used, and what surface preparation is required?


What tests and criteria can a coatings user specify to assure consistent lot-to-lot performance of supplied coatings?


What is the best low-maintenance approach to coating power-tool-cleaned field weld joints on process pipework that is protected with thermal-sprayed aluminum?


How do you prepare an oil-stained, bare concrete floor for coating?


Where are errors most likely to occur when measuring dry film thickness on steel, and how can they be avoided?


What are some ways to improve transfer efficiency of airless spray application?


How does one accurately measure coating thickness on the inside and outside of a small-diameter (~50mm) pipe?


How does the concave or convex curvature of a surface affect the dry film thickness reading?


Is there a place for using “rust convertors” in heavy-duty maintenance projects?


What is the effect of the wind-chill factor on the curing of epoxy and PU when temperatures are similar?


What is most effective treatment for steel contaminated with MIC before painting ?


What is the maximum temperature that an epoxy powder coating can resist when applied on steel substrate?


How can it be determined if moisture within a CMU wall is causing repeated coating failure? If so, can the source of moisture entry be accurately identified for correction?


RH probes are commonly used in concrete floors to determine moisture content. Can they be used in CMU walls or pre-cast walls?


How many times can a building be repainted before the paint becomes too thick to perform properly?


How do you strip paint from a cementitious substrate if you can’t alter the surface texture?


Under what types of exterior atmospheric exposures (other than marine) is it necessary to test for soluble salts?


Is it cost-effective to grind steel edges before coating for atmospheric service? Why or why not?


What causes static electricity during abrasive blasting? What risk does it pose, and how can it be controlled?


What differences in performance and speed do you see among plural-component, conventional airless, and conventional air spraying equipment for field painting structural steel?


How many times can a building be repainted before the paint becomes too thick to perform properly?


What is the proper surface preparation for stainless steel before coating to resist a salt-laden atmosphere?


How long after blasting can stainless steel be left before painting? If this time is exceeded, what further surface preparation is required?


What are the advantages and disadvantages of using mechanical equipment inspectors or welding inspectors, instead of certified coating inspectors, to perform coating inspection duties?


What advantages/disadvantages have you seen with using recycled glass abrasives vs. traditional abrasives?


What are the pros and cons of specifying sieve sizes for abrasives?


When blasting cast-iron structural steelwork, what type of defects might be found, and how do you address them?


How do you remove all traces of an uncured internal coating from a tank when abrasive blasting is not an option?


What is the best way to achieve proper surface preparation in areas with limited access, such as interior box beams on bridges?


How long can a blasted surface be left before priming under different temperatures/relative humidity environments?


How do you determine if local water is suitable for use in UHP waterjetting, particularly in areas where potable water is scarce?


If a paint data sheet notes a required primer thickness of 125 microns, but the project specification calls for 50 microns, how is this resolved?


Some painting specifications call for the use of “Best Effort” in relation to blasting. How does one determine “Best Effort?”


How do you adequately assess the adhesion of a newly applied coating?


What measures must you take to determine and assure the cleanliness of an abrasive?


When the relative humidity in a paint shop exceeds 80%, how can you apply waterborne inorganic zinc so that it cures sufficiently for topcoating in a reasonable time?


How do you measure the DFT or WFT of a film-forming sealer applied to a metallized coating (e.g., flame-sprayed zinc)?


When is it cost-effective to use thermal spray in petrochemical facilities?


Which generic coating systems are suitable for protecting pipeline internals carrying highly abrasive media?


When should you specify UHP waterjetting on bridges?


When applying a 100% solids, fast-curing polyurea coating on concrete, what is the best method for verifying that the proper thickness has been applied?


How do you calibrate a DFT gauge in the magnetic field of a live power plant to measure coatings on steel substrates?


What is an acceptable level of moisture in concrete walls before painting with an acrylic system, and how is the moisture level measured?


Specifications often state that glossy surfaces must be dulled before overcoating. What are some methods for doing this, especially when sanding isn’t feasible or desirable?


How do you successfully apply a chemical-resistant lining to the interior of small-diameter pipes (3 inches or less)?


What is the remedial action if a blaster produces too high a surface profile for the required primer thickness?


What are the best cycles to use in cyclic accelerated corrosion testing to achieve the highest correlation with atmospheric exposure in a northern, industrial environment?


Which DFT statistics should be recorded in a daily inspection report, and why are they relevant to a good coating QC record?


What is the preferred method to remove 25-year-old coal tar epoxy from a carbon steel tank in order to reline?


What smartphone apps or online tools do you find useful in your job? How do they work, and how have they benefited you?


When a specification calls for removal of only loose coating rather than complete coating removal from a masonry substrate, what surface preparation methods are most likely to work without damaging the intact coating that is left on the surface?


What percentage of deterioration is acceptable at a one-year warranty inspection of water tank linings before a contractor must repair the coating job?


How is it possible to determine if concrete is sound enough to receive a thick-film coating?


What is best way to remedy over-thickness of a topcoat after it has dried and cured?


When moisture permeates concrete slabs or walls below grade, how can this problem be solved and does it require excavation?


What is the effect on the permeability of a coating when you add additional coats, either at the time of the original painting or as a maintenance activity?


How do you measure wet film thickness on shop-applied organic zinc-rich primers to accurately predict dry film thickness?

Our shop applies a great deal of OZ primer, and we have found that WFT readings with a standard gauge are not accurate predictors of DFT.


What generic types of coatings work best as liquid-applied air barriers, considering both cost and effectiveness, and what should be the dry film thickness of this system?


How does residue from chemical stripping affect the performance of the replacement coating?


When SSPC-SP3 (Power Tool Cleaning) is specified, how should one decide when to apply the power tool to the entire surface and when to use it just where the coating appears to be defective or rusting?


What is the best way to assure compliance with specified dry film coating thickness requirements on vertical concrete?


As a facility owner, how can I justify the cost of quality control measures, such as third-party inspection, to upper management in my company?


What are the pros and cons of using shotblasting to remove a coating system from a concrete floor?


How should surface preparation be conducted in non-sparking atmospheres?


When performing maintenance surveys on structures that require coatings under insulation, how do you inspect the condition of the coatings?


How much detail should be included in a specification for the surface preparation and painting of a parking garage exterior that includes tilt-up and structural concrete substrates?


Is it sufficient to specify simply that paint should be applied "according to the manufacturer’s instructions?" If not, what kind of detail should be included?


What is the clearest way to specify the degree of smoothness that you want to be achieved by surface preparation on an exterior wood substrate that is covered with deteriorated, uneven, and built-up layers of paint?


What quality control checks can I use to assure the cleanliness of steel abrasive in a fabricator's or shipyard's shop?


How do you maintain a proper operating mix of recyclable abrasive in the field?


What environmental and safety precautions need to be taken when removing lead-based paint from the brick on a commercial building adjacent to the sidewalk in a dense urban business district when the removal method is chemical stripping followed by water blasting?


In what circumstances is third-party inspection is justified on commercial coating work?


What kind of surface preparation prior to coating will be effective and at the same time economical for the aluminum window frames on a large commercial office building? The aluminum was coated originally with a baked-on fluoropolymer which has lost most of its gloss. Maintenance recoating will be with an air-dry fluoropolymer.


What kind of coating system, including surface preparation, should be used to protect a steel factory roof that is subject to hydrochloric acid vapors and other industrial pollutants and particulates in a hot, humid environment?


What are the alternatives for removing mildew from previously uncoated concrete block exteriors before coating?


What is the best method of testing for moisture content in concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls prior to application of coatings?


How can you justify the cost of installing an auto-blast machine and a paint booth in a fabricator's shop, and what resources are available to carry out such an analysis?


If I apply a zinc-rich epoxy primer at 3 mils’ dry film thickness in the shop with air temperature of 90 F, what checks can I make to determine when it is safe to handle and stack the primed steel components?


How do you determine the size of the dehumidification equipment required for a tank lining project?


 
 
   

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