Problem Solving Forum (353)


RH probes are commonly used in concrete floors to determine moisture content. Can they be used in CMU walls or pre-cast walls?


How do I determine when a cementitious-based mortar used to repair exterior concrete is ready to be coated?


What type of antifouling or foul-release coating will provide the greatest protection in warm tropical waters, and for how long?


For st.2/st.3 prepared surfaces like luffing crane refurbishment in marine c5, environmental condition can extend warranties, or any standard guideline or in-meeting specific criteria warranty can be offered. Paint manufacturers sometimes do offer, but is there any set guideline for them?


Which factors are most important in selecting coatings for new concrete?


What are the pros and cons of using shotblasting to remove a coating system from a concrete floor?


Where there is likely to be ponding water, what generic type of reflective roof coating will work best and why?


Why would a pull-off adhesion test give a high value (no failure) for a solventless epoxy that later showed poor adhesion in service?


What makes a coating surface-tolerant?


What is the function of an air receiver during blasting?


What are the most important recommendations for ensuring success in field application of reflective roof coatings to aging single-ply roofs? Do these recommendations vary depending on whether the roof is EPDM, TPO, PVC, or some other type of substrate?


What is the best coating system to protect the hulls of floating production storage offloading units (FPSOs)?


How can I tell if my apartment building’s roof is suitable for installing a vegetative roof?


What can be done to prevent rust bleed in crevices when applying a zinc/epoxy/urethane system?


How do you adequately assess the adhesion of a newly applied coating?


What is the best method for preparing newly galvanized steel to be overcoated with an epoxy system?


I’ve heard about using crystalline admixture or crystalline materials on top of concrete to fill voids and make the substrate less permeable. When is this desirable, and what is the best way to use these materials?


How do you determine the best type of paint to use when repainting a block or concrete building?


What would be an optimal coating system, in terms of both durability and productivity in field painting, for exposed structural steel on the exterior of a stadium built on the seacoast in a damp, cold environment?


How can you justify the cost of installing an auto-blast machine and a paint booth in a fabricator's shop, and what resources are available to carry out such an analysis?


How do you determine whether a lead-bearing coating can be overcoated or must be removed and replaced?


Do I need to pay attention to the permeability of the coating when specifying coatings for the exteriors of CMU walls?


I've seen claims of extreme durability for a new concrete floor coating material exposed to heavy foot traffic. Is there a quick test to determine the validity of these claims?


What type of generic coating is required to protect the inside of a tank containing liquid with pH ranging from 2 to 13 and operated at 65-80 degrees Celsius? Why?


How do you repair polyurea coatings?


What are the limitations of rust-encapsulating coatings?


What would be an optimal coating system, in terms of durability and productivity in field painting, for exposed structural steel on a stadium in a damp, cold environment?


Is there a quick way to determine the validity of a claim of “extreme durability” for a new concrete floor coating material exposed to heavy foot traffic?


What type of generic coating is required to protect the inside of a tank containing liquid with pH ranging from 2 to 13 and operated at 65-80 degrees Celsius? Why?


What is the effect of the wind-chill factor on the curing of epoxy and PU when temperatures are similar?


What is the best way to repair localized coating breakdown on steel?


The facade of my late-19th-century, cast-iron office building has been coated several times, most recently in the 1960s. The paint is faded and delaminating, and I want to remove and replace it. How do I assess the condition of the cast iron and coating, repair weakened areas of the cast iron and prepare and recoat the surface?


What causes amine blush in epoxy topcoats?


What action should be taken if the IOZ fails the MEK test?


When a food plant runs 24/7, even during coating maintenance, tiny airborne food particles can contaminate a prepared surface. How do you identify, prevent and/or remove such contamination before coating?


Is there a definitive relationship between mechanical properties of coatings (such as elongation and tensile strength) and crack-bridging capability?


What is the best way to remove thick-film elastomers from floors and ship decks?


What type of material should I use to achieve bright, bold colors on a concrete floor that gets heavy foot traffic?


What is a self-leveling floor coating, and are there any published standards such coatings must meet in terms of smoothness or other visual properties?


What are the differences between calcium sulfonate modified alkyd (CSA) and high-ratio calcium sulfonate alkyd (HRCSA) in terms of performance and when and where each is used?


What are the pros and cons of acid-staining a concrete floor?


What’s the best way to determine if a cementitious-based mortar used to repair exterior concrete is ready to be coated?


Alternatives to coal tar epoxies in wastewater/sewage applications have been in service for a number of years. From experience, which coating types with what fillers at what thicknesses (over steel) have performed best?


How does a lower-metallic-content zinc-rich epoxy affect the life of a paint system?


Is a sealer coat always required for coating systems applied to concrete surfaces that will be exposed to marine environments?


How do you determine the best type of coating for repainting a block or concrete building?


When and why would I need to stripe coat if I am using an edge-retention primer?


Where would you use epoxy and cementitious intumescent coatings?


What kind of coating system provides the strongest resistance to staining from hot tires on garage floors and parking decks?


Can lightweight block (CMU) be successfully coated to prevent water intrusion, or is it best to build with standard weight?


What criteria should be used in deciding between a liquid-applied and a sheet-applied air barrier?


What are the performance distinctions among various types of intumescent coatings (for example, water-based, solvent-based, epoxies and methacrylates)?


What are the differences between an ethyl silicate base zinc-rich primer and an alkali silicate base zinc-rich primer? In what instances should one be used instead another?


Do the balcony floor slabs on the high-rise seaside condo I’m working on in Florida really need cathodic protection?


How do I clean off mortar smears that were allowed to cure for six months on a new architectural block building?


Zinc metalizing has been applied to concrete surfaces to provide cathodic protection to rebar in the concrete. What are the problems, if any, with applying zinc metalizing to concrete, and what is the best approach to addressing them?


What causes bubbling or cratering of epoxy intermediate coat when applied over epoxy zinc-rich primer?


When is it cost-effective to use thermal spray in petrochemical facilities?


What are the performance distinctions among various types of intumescent coatings (for example, water-based, solvent based, epoxies, methacrylates, etc.)?


Which generic coating systems are suitable for protecting pipeline internals carrying highly abrasive media?


From a specifier’s point of view, what are the important distinctions between various products that are classified as polyurea?


Which factors are most important in selecting coatings for new concrete?


Why are zinc-rich paints generally not used for an immersion environment, despite the superior anti-corrosive protection?


What must specifiers consider when selecting and using sealants and grouts to fill gaps and seal concrete structures?


Which lining systems are suitable for the maintenance painting of an mono ethylene glycol storage tank protection?


What are the options for shop-applied systems (surface preparation and coating type) to protect the interiors and exteriors of new saltwater storage tanks and associated steelwork that will be exposed to seawater, and that will allow for easy touchup and maintenance once the structures are erected?


What is the definition of a hybrid coating, and what are the performance properties of hybrid coatings?


What is the best way to prevent tropical hardwood deck lumber like ironwood from developing a gray patina in sunlight?


In a northern climate with extreme winters, is it reasonable to consider retrofitting an air barrier to a multi-unit brick apartment building? What sort of installation strategy would be most beneficial?


What generic types of coatings work best as liquid-applied air barriers, considering both cost and effectiveness, and what should be the dry film thickness of this system?


Where there is likely to be ponding water, what generic type of reflective roof coating will work best and why?


Considering cost, productivity, and thoroughness, what is the best way to remove paint from cement blocks (CMUs)?


What is the best way to judge the effectiveness and durability of competing liquid-applied air barriers on concrete block?


What is best media to use to remove aged epoxy coal tar from a steel tank before re-lining?


I understand that the EPA is reluctant to allow the use of nanoparticles in coatings, due to their tendency to persist in the environment. What is the real risk, and how can the nanocoating industry address it?


What health and safety precautions should contractors take when applying isocyanate-cured epoxies in the field?


What is the best method for removing production machine oils soaked deeply into a concrete floor before applying a non-skid coating?


How do you gauge the remaining service life of an aging FBE system on a buried transmission pipeline?


When applying a 100% solids, fast-curing polyurea coating on concrete, what is the best method for verifying that the proper thickness has been applied?


What is the best combination of metal and coatings for creating bright colors on public art and sculpture, keeping in mind durability, cost, maintenance, and gloss and color retention?


What is the best way to remove thick-film elastomers from floors and ship decks?


What kind of coating system provides the strongest resistance to staining from hot tires on garage floors and parking decks?


What causes bubbling or cratering of an epoxy intermediate coat when applied over epoxy zinc-rich primer?


Where would you use epoxy and cementitious intumescent coatings?


How do admixtures to concrete (hardeners, anti-dust compounds, etc.) affect coating adhesion? What can be done to eliminate or minimize negative effects?


What is the effect on the permeability of a coating when you add additional coats, either at the time of the original painting or as a maintenance activity?


What is the effect of the wind-chill factor on the curing of epoxy and PU when temperatures are similar?


How do you repair polyurea coatings?


Do I need to pay attention to the permeability of the coating when specifying coatings for the exteriors of CMU walls?


How do you accurately measure the adhesion of inorganic zinc?


In what types of climates and/or environments is the use of a vapor-impermeable air/moisture barrier recommended as opposed to a vapor-permeable system? Are there guidelines or standards that can help determine this?


What type of generic coating is required to protect the inside of a tank containing liquid with pH ranging from 2 to 13 and operated at 65-80 degrees Celsius? Why?


What would be an optimal coating system, in terms of both durability and productivity in field painting, for exposed structural steel on the exterior of a stadium built on the seacoast in a damp, cold environment?


What are the most important recommendations for ensuring success in field application of reflective roof coatings to aging single-ply roofs? Do these recommendations vary depending on whether the roof is EPDM, TPO, PVC, or some other type of substrate?


What causes amine blush in epoxy topcoats?


What type of material should I use to achieve bright, bold colors on a concrete floor with heavy foot traffic?


What is the maximum temperature that an epoxy powder coating can resist when applied on steel substrate?


What are the limitations of rust-encapsulating coatings?


What is the best way to judge the effectiveness of competing products offered as liquid-applied air barriers on concrete block, in terms of both durability and air barrier properties?


What causes blistering/crater formation in freshly applied polyurethane topcoats, and how can this be avoided?


What coating or lining system, including surface preparation, should be used on an in-gound swimming pool constructed of galvanized steel in a northern climate?


Can you provide recommendations on ways to make sure an acid stain can be successfully applied to an existing horizontal concrete surface? I understand that residues such as coatings, curing agents, waxes, or other materials will interfere with the stain’s reaction with the concrete, but can I find out what the substances are so I know how to remove them?


Can an epoxy polyamide zinc phosphate primer be overcoated with a synthetic enamel alkyd-based topcoat? If no, why not?


Is there a definitive relationship between mechanical properties of coatings (such as elongation and tensile strength) and crack-bridging capability?


Are duplex coatings suitable for immersion service?


What is the best primer system for galvanized steel?


How does a lower-metallic-content zinc-rich epoxy affect the life of a paint system?


How do you determine the best type of coating for repainting a block or concrete building?


What type of antifouling or foul-release coating will provide the greatest protection in warm tropical waters, and for how long?


What are the performance distinctions among various types of intumescent coatings (for example, water-based, solvent-based, epoxies and methacrylates)?


How do I prepare an oil-stained, bare concrete floor for coating?


Which factors are most important in selecting coatings for new concrete?


What are the criteria for selecting coatings for application during extreme (atmospheric) heat?


How do you adequately assess the adhesion of a newly applied coating?


What makes a coating surface-tolerant?


What is best way to remedy over-thickness of a topcoat after it has dried and cured?


On a parking deck with harsh exposures—to road salt, frequent wetting, freeze-thaw cycles, and exterior weathering—what generic coating type works best, and why?


What criteria should be used in deciding between a liquid-applied and a sheet-applied air barrier?


How can I determine if my urban hospital building would benefit financially by installing a reflective roof coating on top of the current flat black roofing substrate?


Zinc metalizing has been applied to concrete surfaces to provide cathodic protection to rebar in the concrete. What are the problems, if any, with applying zinc metalizing to concrete, and what is the best approach to addressing them?


What components of an onshore shale gas drilling rig require coating protection, and what properties must the coatings have?


I need to remove coatings from masonry on a historic-preservation project. What are my options for doing so without damaging the mortar joints?


On a parking deck with harsh exposures—to road salt, frequent wetting, freeze-thaw cycles, and exterior weathering—what generic coating type works best, and why?


I’m converting a commercial space and am trying to decide on the floor. Should we polish the concrete floor or coat it? The concrete seems in fair shape, from what we can see under the dried mastic where the old vinyl tiles have been removed.


How can I tell if my apartment building’s roof is suitable for installing a vegetative roof?


Do the balcony floor slabs on the high-rise seaside condo I’m working on in Florida really need cathodic protection?


What is the best coating system to protect the hulls of floating production storage offloading units (FPSOs)?


What is the best way to protect an exposed concrete foundation?


What is the best way to protect an exposed concrete foundation?


What is the best method for protecting cables on suspension bridges from corrosion?


What are the best options for coating steel and aluminum when encased in concrete below grade, to ensure long-term protection?


What is the correct gauge type and probe for measuring coating thickness of a super duplex stainless steel system with epoxy and polyurethane?


How do you strip paint from a cementitious substrate if you can’t alter the surface texture?


What is the best method for preparing newly galvanized steel to be overcoated with an epoxy system?


What is the optimal moisture content for masonry before painting can begin?


How do you determine the best type of paint to use when repainting a block or concrete building?


How is it possible to determine if concrete is sound enough to receive a thick-film coating?


What can be done to prevent rust bleed in crevices when applying a zinc/epoxy/urethane system?


How do I prepare an oil-stained, bare concrete floor for coating?


What is the definition of a hybrid coating, and what are the performance properties of hybrid coatings?


When applying a 100% solids, fast-curing polyurea coating on concrete, what is the best method for verifying that the proper thickness has been applied?


Which generic coating systems are suitable for protecting pipeline internals carrying highly abrasive media?


What are the criteria for selecting coatings for application during extreme (atmospheric) heat?


Theoretically, how many LEED credits can be acquired for a newly constructed building through the use of coatings and related technologies, such as diamond-polished concrete?


On a parking deck with harsh exposure conditions—from road salts, frequent wetting, and freeze-thaw cycles, to some exterior weathering—what generic type of film-forming coating works best and why?


What are the pros and cons of using an organic vs. inorganic zinc primer?


I've seen claims of extreme durability for a new concrete floor coating material exposed to heavy foot traffic. Is there a quick test to determine the validity of these claims?


What is the best method for removing a day-glo orange spray graffiti from a brick wall?


What environmental and safety precautions need to be taken when removing lead-based paint from the brick on a commercial building adjacent to the sidewalk in a dense urban business district when the removal method is chemical stripping followed by water blasting?


What are the performance distinctions among various types of intumescent coatings? More specifically, the differences between water-based, solvent-based, epoxies and methacrylates?


What is the best way to judge the effectiveness of competing products offered as liquid-applied air barriers on concrete block, in terms of both durability and air barrier properties?


Can you provide recommendations on ways to make sure an acid stain can be successfully applied to an existing horizontal concrete surface?


What are the performance distinctions among various types of intumescent coatings (for example, water-based, solvent-based, epoxies and methacrylates)?


How can I determine if my hospital building in Philadelphia can benefit financially from installation of a reflective roof coating on top of the current black roofing substrate on a flat surface?


How do you gauge the remaining service life of an aging FBE system on a buried transmission pipeline?


What is the difference between concrete "coatings" and "toppings"?


Can fluoropolymer coatings that are still very glossy be overcoated (if, for example, the topcoat is losing color or the color needs to be changed)? If so, what type of coating can be used, and what surface preparation is required?


Specifications often state that glossy surfaces must be dulled before overcoating. What are some methods for doing this, especially when sanding isn’t feasible?


How many times can a building be repainted before the paint becomes too thick to perform properly?


In a northern climate with extreme winters, is it reasonable to consider retrofitting an air barrier to a multi-unit brick apartment building? What sort of installation strategy would be most beneficial?


What is the effect on the permeability of a coating when you add additional coats, either at the time of the original painting or as a maintenance activity?


What generic types of coatings work best as liquid-applied air barriers, considering both cost and effectiveness, and what should be the dry film thickness of this system?


What is the best way to assure compliance with specified dry film coating thickness requirements on vertical concrete?


Can an epoxy polyamide zinc phosphate primer be overcoated with a synthetic enamel alkyd-based topcoat? If no, why not?


In what types of climates and/or environments is the use of a vapor-impermeable air/moisture barrier recommended as opposed to a vapor-permeable system? Are there guidelines or standards that can help determine this?


What type of material should I use to achieve bright, bold colors that will last on a concrete floor with heavy foot traffic?


What would be a reasonable service life for a two-coat, zinc-rich epoxy/epoxy mastic system, about 200-250 microns, in a marine environment? What evidence is there from the field?


In what circumstances is third-party inspection justified on commercial coating work?


Is there a definitive relationship between mechanical properties of coatings (such as elongation and tensile strength) and crack-bridging capability?


I am the facility manager for a new amusement park that will operate year-round in a hot, humid environment. Some critical structural steel in the heart of the park needs to be protected from corrosion and at the same time to retain very good appearance properties for as long as possible, since maintenance painting is disruptive. What coating system should I select to achieve the longest useful life, given that cost is a secondary consideration, and how long will this system look good while providing corrosion protection?


What are the significant performance differences between an inorganic zinc primer (ethyl silicate) and an organic zinc primer (epoxy), given the same application and exposure conditions?


What is the most effective available method for the treatment and preservation of the many cables used on suspension bridges?


What coating or lining system, including surface preparation, should be used on an in-ground swimming pool constructed of galvanized steel in a northern climate?


Which single type of paint system can be used to protect both stainless steel and carbon steel welded together?


What is the best method of testing for moisture content in concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls prior to application of coatings?


What type of coating system (and surface prep) should be used to protect a steel factory roof that is subject to hydrochloric acid vapors and other industrial pollutants and particulates in a hot, humid environment?


What criteria of selection should be used in deciding between a liquid-applied and a sheet-applied air barrier?


How can you determine if a concrete substrate is in suitable condition for application of an acid stain?


What kinds and sources of data are available to support the use of antimicrobial agents in coatings for hospital substrates?


When coating an aged concrete floor, how should one determine the correct sequence of surface preparation among the options of pressure washing and grinding or other concrete removal and roughening methods?


When a specification requires Manufacturer X’s system “or equivalent,” what does "or equivalent" mean, and who decides what’s equivalent?


Can fluoropolymer coatings that are still very glossy be overcoated (if, for example, the topcoat is losing color or the color needs to be changed)? If so, what type of coating can be used, and what surface preparation is required?


What type of antifouling or foul-release coating will provide the greatest protection in warm tropical waters, and for how long?


What are the most important recommendations for ensuring success in field application of reflective roof coatings to aging single-ply roofs? Do these recommendations vary depending on whether the roof is EPDM, TPO, PVC, or some other type of substrate?


When coating an aged concrete floor, how should one determine the correct sequence of surface preparation among the options of pressure washing and grinding or other concrete removal and roughening methods?


Why would a pull-off adhesion test give a high value (no failure) for a solventless epoxy that later showed poor adhesion in service?


How can I determine when concrete has cured sufficiently to be coated, besides waiting the 28 days typically specified?


What are the pros and cons of using shotblasting to remove a coating system from a concrete floor?


How do you prepare an oil-stained, bare concrete floor for coating?


Where would you use epoxy and cementitious intumescent coatings?


Where there is likely to be ponding water, what generic type of reflective roof coating will work best and why?


Can an epoxy polyamide zinc phosphate primer be overcoated with a synthetic enamel alkyd-based topcoat? If no, why not?


What is the effect of the wind-chill factor on the curing of epoxy and PU when temperatures are similar?


In what type of environment is the use of a vapor-impermeable air/moisture barrier recommended? Are there guidelines or standards to help determine this?


What is the maximum temperature that an epoxy powder coating can resist when applied on steel substrate?


What is the best way to remove graffiti from the surface of historic stone masonry on a church while preserving the appearance properties of the substrate?


What are the limitations of rust-encapsulating coatings?


Is there a quick way to determine the validity of a claim of “extreme durability” for a new concrete floor coating material exposed to heavy foot traffic?


What is the best way to remove thick-film elastomers from floors and ship decks?


What are the most important recommendations for successful field application of reflective coatings to aging single-ply roofs?


What can be used in states that will not allow the use of MEK for IOZ testing per ASTM D4752?


What is the best method for removing fluorescent orange spray graffiti from a brick wall?


In what circumstances is third-party inspection recommended for commercial coating work?


What causes amine blush in epoxy topcoats?


Are there any industry standards, technical references, guidelines etc. that provide direction to an owner as to when a low-slope roof membrane (single ply, mechanically attached, white thermoplastic) should or MUST be replaced?


What causes bubbling or cratering of epoxy intermediate coat when applied over epoxy zinc-rich primer?


What type of material should I use to achieve bright, bold colors on a concrete floor that gets heavy foot traffic?


What is the best way to remove thick film elastomers from floors and ship decks?


What is a self-leveling floor coating, and are there any published standards such coatings must meet in terms of smoothness or other visual properties?


We’re converting a grocery store into a motorcycle dealership. Should we polish the concrete floor or coat it? The concrete seems in fair shape, from what we can see under the dried mastic where the old vinyl tiles have been removed.


On guardrails on a marine wharf, grating panels consisting of mild steel bars about 1/8-inch by 1-inch on a 2-inch-square grid were painted with a three-coat zinc/epoxy/urethane system. Inspectors are finding numerous pinholes in the finish coat along the inside corners of the grating where the 1-inch-thick bars meet at a 90-degree angle. These pinholes were not noticed in the zinc or epoxy coats, but the final coat's visual inspection is more detailed. What is the likely cause of the pinholing, and what could be done to prevent it on future applications? Also, what should the disposition of the parts with pinholes be, as in, repair, accept as is, reblast and recoat, or an alternative?


What is the recommended coating system and procedure for repairing deteriorated inorganic zinc/epoxy/polyurethane 3-coat systems? Does the repair system or procedure vary with the degree of deterioration and if so, how?


If an atmospheric coating system of a zinc-rich epoxy, epoxy mid coat and polyurethane color topcoat has properly cured with no visual defects, should I be worried if the thickness of any coat exceeds any specified maximum?


Alternatives to coal tar epoxies in wastewater/sewage applications have been in service for a number of years. From experience, which coating types with what fillers at what thicknesses (over steel) have performed best?


What is the best way to protect porous masonry from graffiti?


Is a sealer coat always required for coating systems applied to concrete surfaces that will be exposed to marine environments?


What are the most effective procedures for protecting steel and adjacent concrete together?


In preparing for coating, what is the best way to treat a steel surface that has been attacked by microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC)?


Which factors are most important in selecting coatings for new concrete?


Where would you use epoxy and cementitious intumescent coatings?


What tests should be run to determine if an existing concrete bridge pier needs rehabilitation or repair before cleaning and coating?


RH probes are commonly used in concrete floors to determine moisture content. Can they be used in CMU walls or pre-cast walls?


What generic types of coating materials best resist microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC)?


What is the optimal moisture content for masonry before painting can begin?


How does a lower-metallic-content zinc-rich epoxy affect the life of a paint system?


What is the most common or economical coating system for rehabbing the exterior of above-ground storage tanks?


How do you determine the best type of coating for repainting a block or concrete building?


What are the performance distinctions among various types of intumescent coatings (for example, water-based, solvent-based, epoxies and methacrylates)?


What is the best method for preparing newly galvanized steel to be overcoated with an epoxy system?


What can be done to prevent rust bleed in crevices when applying a zinc/epoxy/urethane system?


How long after blasting can stainless steel be left before painting? If this time is exceeded, what further surface preparation is required?


When applying a 100% solids, fast-curing polyurea coating on concrete, what is the best method for verifying that the proper thickness has been applied?


Which factors are most important in selecting coatings for new concrete?


What must specifiers consider when selecting and using sealants and grouts to fill gaps and seal concrete structures?


Which generic coating systems are suitable for protecting pipeline internals carrying highly abrasive media?


What are the criteria for selecting coatings for application during extreme (atmospheric) heat?


How do you know when pot life has expired? Can you extend pot life and, if so, how?


What health and safety precautions should contractors take when applying isocyanate-cured epoxies in the field?


What is an acceptable level of moisture in concrete walls before painting with an acrylic system, and how should the moisture level be measured?


What are the pros and cons of using an organic vs. inorganic zinc primer?


I understand that the EPA is reluctant to allow the use of nanoparticles in coatings, due to their tendency to persist in the environment. What is the real risk, and how can the nanocoating industry address it?


What kind of coating system provides the strongest resistance to staining from hot tires on garage floors and parking decks?


What kind of coating system provides the strongest resistance to staining from hot tires on garage floors and parking decks?


When a specification requires Manufacturer X’s system “or equivalent,” what does “or equivalent” mean, and who decides what’s equivalent?


Can lightweight block (CMU) be successfully coated to prevent water intrusion, or is it best to build with standard weight?


On a parking deck with harsh exposures—to road salt, frequent wetting, freeze-thaw cycles, and exterior weathering—what generic coating type works best, and why?


How do concrete admixtures such as hardeners and anti-dust compounds affect coating adhesion? What can be done to minimize negative effects?


Is grinding the only way to remove large areas of a silicone coating from a ship's hull to replace the silicone with an epoxy mastic?


What is the best way to assure compliance with specified dry film coating thickness requirements on vertical concrete?


What are the pros and cons of using shotblasting to remove a coating system from a concrete floor?


What kind of initial treatment is the best defense against graffiti for rough-surfaced concrete block (CMU)?


Where there is likely to be ponding water, what generic type of reflective roof coating will work best, and why?


In what type of environment is the use of a vapor-impermeable air/moisture barrier recommended? Are there guidelines or standards to help determine this?


Theoretically, how many LEED credits can be acquired for a newly constructed building through the use of coatings and related technologies?


What generic types of coatings work best as liquid-applied air barriers, considering both cost and effectiveness, and what should be the dry film thickness of this system?


What would be an optimal coating system, in terms of durability and productivity in field painting, for exposed structural steel on a stadium in a damp, cold environment?


I’ve seen claims of extreme durability for a new concrete floor coating material exposed to heavy foot traffic. Is there a quick test to determine the validity of these claims?


What are the pros and cons of using shotblasting to remove a coating system from a concrete floor?


I am the facility manager for a new amusement park that will operate year-round in a hot, humid environment. What protective coating system should I select to achieve the longest useful life (cost is a secondary consideration), and what performance can I expect?


How, besides grinding, can one remove large areas of silicone coating from a ship’s hull to replace the silicone with an epoxy mastic?


When animal fat in slaughterhouses penetrates concrete surfaces, how do you identify and remove the contamination before coating the concrete?


What are the most important recommendations for successful field application of reflective coatings to aging single-ply roofs?


What is the best way to judge the effectiveness and durability of competing liquid-applied air barriers on concrete block?


I have several 20-year-old carbon steel tanks for storing demineralized water. The original coating (type unknown) has started to blister. What material, at what DFT, should be used to refurbish the coating?


What are the significant performance differences between an inorganic zinc primer (ethyl silicate) and an organic zinc primer (epoxy), given the same application and exposure conditions?


What is the best combination of metal and coatings for creating bright colors on public art and sculpture, keeping in mind durability, cost, maintenance, and gloss and color retention?


What is the best way to remove thick-film elastomers from floors and ship decks?


What type of material should I use to achieve bright, bold colors on a concrete floor that gets heavy foot traffic?


What is the best method of testing for moisture content in concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls before application of coatings?


What selection criteria should be used to decide between a liquid-applied and a sheet-applied air barrier?


Which single type of paint system can be used to protect both stainless steel and carbon steel welded together?


How can I determine if my urban hospital building would benefit financially by installing a reflective roof coating on top of the current flat black roofing substrate?


What type of coating system (and surface prep) should be used to protect a steel factory roof that is subject to hydrochloric acid vapors and other industrial pollutants and particulates in a hot, humid environment?


What’s the best way to determine if a cementitious-based mortar used to repair exterior concrete is ready to be coated?


Under what circumstances is third-party inspection justified on commercial coating work?


What are the pros and cons of acid-staining a concrete floor?


What would be a reasonable service life for a two-coat, zinc-rich epoxy/epoxy mastic system, about 200-250 microns, in a marine environment? What evidence is there from the field?


We’re converting a grocery store to a motorcycle dealership. Should we polish the concrete floor or coat it? The concrete seems in fair shape, from what we can see under the dried mastic where the old vinyl tiles have been removed.


Is there a definitive relationship between mechanical properties of coatings (such as elongation and tensile strength) and crack-bridging capability?


How can I tell if my apartment building’s roof is suitable for installing a vegetative roof?


I need to coat a bare concrete warehouse floor that has visible oil stains. What are my options for cleaning the concrete before coating it?


What is the difference between a damp-surface tolerant and a wet-surface tolerant paint? How can we determine when a surface is damp or wet?


What is the best way to protect an exposed concrete foundation?


During a week of heavy rain, we painted the interior of a heated concrete building. The paint blistered badly a week later on the walls with an outside exposure. What’s the best way to remove the coating, prepare the surface, and recoat to prevent future blistering?


How do I prepare an oil-stained, bare concrete floor for coating?


Zinc metalizing has been applied to concrete surfaces to provide cathodic protection to rebar in the concrete. What are the problems, if any, with applying zinc metalizing to concrete, and what is the best approach to addressing them?


What components of an onshore shale gas drilling rig require coating protection, and what properties must the coatings have?


Can fluoropolymer coatings that are still very glossy be overcoated (if, for example, the topcoat is losing color or the color needs to be changed)? If so, what type of coating can be used, and what surface preparation is required?


What tests and criteria can a coatings user specify to assure consistent lot-to-lot performance of supplied coatings?


What is the best low-maintenance approach to coating power-tool-cleaned field weld joints on process pipework that is protected with thermal-sprayed aluminum?


What type of antifouling or foul-release coating will provide the greatest protection in warm tropical waters, and for how long?


How do you prepare an oil-stained, bare concrete floor for coating?


How do you gauge the remaining service life of a weathered alkyd paint system and determine whether it should be removed or overcoated?


For coatings with a high-solids content (95% or more), what kinds of defects, such as holidays or micropores, are possible or likely to occur in the applied film? How can these be prevented or remedied?


Why would a pull-off adhesion test give a high value (no failure) for a solventless epoxy that later showed poor adhesion in service?


Should the surfaces of flanges be coated to prevent corrosion? Why or why not?


Where would you use epoxy and cementitious intumescent coatings?


What type of generic coating is required to protect the inside of a tank containing liquid with pH ranging from 2 to 13 and operated at 65-80°C? Why?


How do you repair polyurea coatings?


What are the limitations of rust-encapsulating coatings?


What is the effect of the wind-chill factor on the curing of epoxy and PU when temperatures are similar?


What causes blistering/crater formation in freshly applied polyurethane topcoats, and how can this be avoided?


What action should be taken if the IOZ fails the MEK test?


What causes amine blush in epoxy topcoats?


Can water be sprayed onto an IOZ coated surface, which has not fully cured due to low humid conditions, to accelerate the cure?


What is the maximum temperature that an epoxy powder coating can resist when applied on steel substrate?


I am experiencing problems with a paint system on some vessels we built. The system is an ethyl silicate zinc primer, glass flake epoxy tie-coat and aliphatic poly top coat. The project is constructed from A516 boiler plate 1/4 in thick. Blasted to SP10 with 2.5 mil profile. Painting is being done inside a paint booth where ambient conditions clearly meet the specification. The coatings are exhibiting symptoms of solvent popping in a specific area on the exterior of the vessel. The problem only manifests itself over the back side of a weld that is on the inside of the vessel. We have made numerous adjustments to the system as well as the process to try to solve the issue. Nothing is helping. The manufactures reps are scratching their heads, and I am pulling my hair out. Any input would be welcome.


Which industries or market sectors are adopting the use of powder coating?


What causes bubbling or cratering of epoxy intermediate coat when applied over epoxy zinc-rich primer?


If the walls of single-wythe CMU with core fill insulation become saturated, can they be adequately dried out for painting? If so, how?


What is the optimal moisture content for masonry before painting can begin?


How do you determine the best type of paint to use when repainting a block or concrete building?


How many times can a building be repainted before the paint becomes too thick to perform properly?


What are the performance distinctions among various types of intumescent coatings (for example, water-based, solvent based, epoxies, methacrylates, etc.)?


What generic types of coating materials best resist microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC)?


From a specifier’s point of view, what are the important distinctions between various products that are classified as polyurea?


What is the effect of using a lower-metallic-content zinc-rich epoxy on the life of a paint system?


Which factors are most important in selecting coatings for new concrete?


What must specifiers consider when selecting and using sealants and grouts to fill gaps and seal concrete structures?


How do you determine whether a lead-bearing coating can be overcoated or removed and replaced?


We are restricted to applying road marking paints during hot, humid summer nights, on surfaces very often below dew point conditions. What is the best generic type of marking paint to use?


When and why would I need to stripe coat if I’m using an edge-retention primer?


What is the best method for removing production machine oils soaked deeply into a concrete floor before applying a non-skid coating?


What is the most common or economical coating system for rehabbing the exterior of above-ground storage tanks?


When is it cost-effective to use thermal spray in petrochemical facilities?


Which generic coating systems are suitable for protecting pipeline internals carrying highly abrasive media?


What can be done to prevent rust bleed in crevices when applying a zinc/epoxy/urethane system?


When applying a 100% solids, fast-curing polyurea coating on concrete, what is the best method for verifying that the proper thickness has been applied?


Which lining systems are suitable for the maintenance painting of an mono ethylene glycol storage tank protection?


What are the options for shop-applied systems (surface preparation and coating type) to protect the interiors and exteriors of new saltwater storage tanks and associated steelwork that will be exposed to seawater, and that will allow for easy touchup and maintenance once the structures are erected?


I need to embed a metallized culvert liner on concrete. I've been told I have to paint it to avoid adhesion problems between the metal liner and the concrete. Is this true and, if so, what type of coating is best?


How can you determine if a concrete substrate is in a suitable condition for application of an acid stain?


How is it possible to determine if concrete is sound enough to receive a thick-film coating?


What is the definition of a hybrid coating, and what are the performance properties of hybrid coatings?


When specifying coatings for maintenance repainting of structural steel, under what conditions is it acceptable to settle for a surface-tolerant system, and when is such a system unacceptable?


What kind of coating system provides the strongest resistance to staining from hot tires on garage floors and parking decks?


Can light-weight block (CMU) be successfully coated to prevent water intrusion, or is it best to build with standard weight?


On a parking deck with harsh exposure conditions--to road salts, frequent wetting, freeze-thaw cycles, and some exterior weathering—what generic type of film-forming coating works best and why?


In a northern climate with extreme winters, is it reasonable to consider retrofitting an air barrier to a multi-unit brick apartment building? What sort of installation strategy would be most beneficial?


How can you determine the moisture content of a concrete block (CMU) wall, and how can you judge when the moisture level is sufficiently low to paint?


How do admixtures to concrete (hardeners, anti-dust compounds, etc.) affect coating adhesion? What can be done to eliminate or minimize negative effects?


What is the effect on the permeability of a coating when you add additional coats, either at the time of the original painting or as a maintenance activity?


What generic types of coatings work best as liquid-applied air barriers, considering both cost and effectiveness, and what should be the dry film thickness of this system?


What is the best way to assure compliance with specified dry film coating thickness requirements on vertical concrete?


Where there is likely to be ponding water, what generic type of reflective roof coating will work best and why?


Is grinding the only way to remove large areas of a silicone coating from a ship's hull to replace the silicone with an epoxy mastic?


I've seen claims of extreme durability for a new concrete floor coating material exposed to heavy foot traffic. Is there a quick test to determine the validity of these claims?


What are the most important recommendations for ensuring success in field application of reflective roof coatings to aging single-ply roofs? Do these recommendations vary depending on whether the roof is EPDM, TPO, PVC, or some other type of substrate?


How do I determine when a cementitious-based mortar used to repair exterior concrete is ready to be coated?


What is the best way to judge the effectiveness of competing products offered as liquid-applied air barriers on concrete block, in terms of both durability and air barrier properties?


What kind of coating system, including surface preparation, should be used to protect a steel factory roof that is subject to hydrochloric acid vapors and other industrial pollutants and particulates in a hot, humid environment?


What criteria of selection should be used in deciding between a liquid-applied and a sheet-applied air barrier?


How can I determine if my hospital building in Philadelphia can benefit financially from installation of a reflective roof coating on top of the current black roofing substrate on a flat surface?


 
 
   

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