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Problem Solving Forum (265)


How can it be determined if moisture within a CMU wall is causing repeated coating failure? If so, can the source of moisture entry be accurately identified for correction?


As an engineer in a moderate-sized chemical plant, how can I justify the cost of third-party inspection to upper management?


Is stainless steel banding suitable for fixing galvanized insulation cladding? If not, why not?


What is the best method for removing production machine oils soaked deeply into a concrete floor before applying a non-skid coating?


As a facility owner, how can I justify the cost of quality control measures, such as third-party inspection, to upper management in my company?


When applying a 100% solids, fast-curing polyurea coating on concrete, what is the best method for verifying that the proper thickness has been applied?


What is an acceptable level of moisture in concrete walls before painting with an acrylic system, and how is the moisture level measured?


Specifications often state that glossy surfaces must be dulled before overcoating. What are some methods for doing this, especially when sanding isn’t feasible or desirable?


What steps must be taken to mitigate poor adhesion over an existing aged silver aluminum paint? What primer will achieve good adhesion?


How do you remove all traces of an uncured internal coating from a tank when abrasive blasting is not an option?


What smartphone apps or online tools do you find useful in your job? How do they work, and how have they benefited you?


When a specification calls for removal of only loose coating rather than complete coating removal from a masonry substrate, what surface preparation methods are most likely to work without damaging the intact coating that is left on the surface?


A specification requires Manufacturer X’s system “or equivalent.” What does “or equivalent” mean, and who decides what’s “equivalent?”


When specifying coatings for maintenance repainting of structural steel, under what conditions is it acceptable to settle for a surface-tolerant system, and when is such a system unacceptable?


When moisture permeates concrete slabs or walls below grade, how can this problem be solved and does it require excavation?


How do admixtures to concrete (hardeners, anti-dust compounds, etc.) affect coating adhesion? What can be done to eliminate or minimize negative effects?


What is the effect on the permeability of a coating when you add additional coats, either at the time of the original painting or as a maintenance activity?


How does residue from chemical stripping affect the performance of the replacement coating?


I have several water tanks constructed with carbon steel for demineralized water storage. The tanks are about 20 years old, and the original coating has started to blister. For refurbishment of the coating, what material should be used and at what dry film thickness? The original type of coating is unknown.


What is the maximum number of holidays that should be permitted for linings used in immersion service, and why?


What is the Cold Wall Effect? Can it cause premature coating failure and, if so, how do I prevent or minimize it?


Do I need to pay attention to the permeability of the coating when specifying coatings for the exteriors of CMU walls?


How much detail should be included in a specification for the surface preparation and painting of a parking garage exterior that includes tilt-up and structural concrete substrates?


How much detail should be included in a specification for the surface preparation and painting of a parking garage exterior that includes tilt-up and structural concrete substrates?


How should a contractor respond when he reads a specification requirement that "the nominal dry film thickness of the coating shall be 3 mils"?


What are some ways to improve transfer efficiency of airless spray application?


In what types of climates and/or environments is the use of a vapor-impermeable air/moisture barrier recommended as opposed to a vapor-permeable system? Are there guidelines or standards that can help determine this?


What is the clearest way to specify the degree of smoothness that you want to be achieved by surface preparation on an exterior wood substrate that is covered with deteriorated, uneven and built-up layers of paint?


What would be an optimal coating system, in terms of both durability and productivity in field painting, for exposed structural steel on the exterior of a stadium built on the seacoast in a damp, cold environment?


What type of coating system (and surface prep) should be used to protect a steel factory roof that is subject to hydrochloric acid vapors and other industrial pollutants and particulates in a hot, humid environment?


What is the best combination of metal (for instance, steel or aluminum) and coatings for creating bright colors on public art and sculpture, considering durability, initial cost, maintenance burden, resistance to vandalism, and gloss and color retention.


What are the most important recommendations for ensuring success in field application of reflective roof coatings to aging single-ply roofs? Do these recommendations vary depending on whether the roof is EPDM, TPO, PVC, or some other type of substrate?


What type of material should I use to achieve bright, bold colors on a concrete floor with heavy foot traffic?


Can water be sprayed onto an IOZ coated surface, which has not fully cured due to low humid conditions, to accelerate the cure?


How do I determine when a cementitious-based mortar used to repair exterior concrete is ready to be coated?


Under what conditions should stainless steel be painted in the oil and gas industry?


The facade of my late-19th-century, cast-iron office building has been coated several times, most recently in the 1960s. The paint is faded and delaminating, and I want to remove and replace it. How do I assess the condition of the cast iron and coating, repair weakened areas of the cast iron and prepare and recoat the surface?


When a food plant runs 24/7 even during coating maintenance, tiny food particles floating in the air (e.g., sugar from sugar processing) in the plant can contaminate a prepared surface. How do you prevent such contamination, or identify it and remove it before applying the coating?


What is the best way to judge the effectiveness of competing products offered as liquid-applied air barriers on concrete block, in terms of both durability and air barrier properties?


What kind of surface preparation prior to coating will be effective and at the same time economical for the aluminum window frames on a large commercial office building? The aluminum was coated originally with a baked-on fluoropolymer which has lost most of its gloss. Maintenance recoating will be with an air-dry fluoropolymer.


What coating or lining system, including surface preparation, should be used on an in-gound swimming pool constructed of galvanized steel in a northern climate?


Your field surface preparation requires SSPC SP-10 and your field bolting uses hot-dip galvanized bolts. What surface preparation do you require/allow on and around the bolts?


Can you provide recommendations on ways to make sure an acid stain can be successfully applied to an existing horizontal concrete surface? I understand that residues such as coatings, curing agents, waxes, or other materials will interfere with the stain’s reaction with the concrete, but can I find out what the substances are so I know how to remove them?


What are the alternatives for removing mildew from previously uncoated concrete block exteriors before coating?


What is the best method of testing for moisture content in concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls prior to application of coatings?


Is there a definitive relationship between mechanical properties of coatings (such as elongation and tensile strength) and crack-bridging capability?


What is the difference between a damp-surface tolerant and a wet-surface tolerant paint? How can we determine when a surface is damp or wet?


A specification for a bridge to be built of high-performance weathering steel requires an SSPC-SP 10, a profile of 3 to 5 mils, and metallizing with a final DFT of 10-12 mils. What challenges, time, and costs are associated with obtaining the profile?


During a week of heavy rain, we painted the interior of a heated concrete building. The paint blistered badly a week later on the walls with an outside exposure. What’s the best way to remove the coating, prepare the surface, and recoat to prevent future blistering?


Is it cost-effective to grind steel edges before coating for atmospheric service? Why or why not?


What is the best way to repair localized coating breakdown on steel?


What causes blistering/crater formation in freshly applied polyurethane topcoats, and how can this be avoided?


Which is the most reliable technique to determine pot life of two component paints?


What’s the best way to prevent corrosion of reinforcing bar in concrete?


What is the proper surface preparation for stainless steel before coating to resist a salt-laden atmosphere?


What are the advantages and disadvantages of using mechanical equipment inspectors or welding inspectors, instead of certified coating inspectors, to perform coating inspection duties?


How does a lower-metallic-content zinc-rich epoxy affect the life of a paint system?


What pluses and minuses have you seen with using recycled-glass abrasives vs. traditional abrasives?


How do you determine the best type of coating for repainting a block or concrete building?


What are the performance distinctions among various types of intumescent coatings (for example, water-based, solvent-based, epoxies and methacrylates)?


What are the most effective procedures for protecting steel and adjacent concrete?


How pure must fresh water be for water washing or waterjetting, and how do you determine the water’s purity?


How long after blasting can stainless steel be left before painting? If this time is exceeded, what further surface preparation is required?


Which factors are most important in selecting coatings for new concrete?


Some painting specifications call for the use of “Best Effort” in relation to blasting. How does one determine “Best Effort?”


What must specifiers consider when selecting and using sealants and grouts to fill gaps and seal concrete structures?


What are the criteria for selecting coatings for application during extreme (atmospheric) heat?


How do you determine whether a lead-bearing coating can be overcoated or removed and replaced?


How do you adequately assess the adhesion of a newly applied coating?


What is an acceptable level of moisture in concrete walls before painting with an acrylic system, and how should the moisture level be measured?


Specifications often state that glossy surfaces must be dulled before overcoating. What are some methods for doing this, especially when sanding isn’t feasible?


How do you know when pot life has expired? Can you extend pot life and, if so, how?


How should a conflict between requirements, such as film thickness, on a product data sheet and the specification be resolved?


How can I determine the cleanliness of stainless steel for painting after blast cleaning?


We need to paint our publicly owned lighthouse. What should I include in the specifications for this bid regarding surface preparation, coating systems, and other considerations?


What is best way to remedy over-thickness of a topcoat after it has dried and cured?


When a specification requires Manufacturer X’s system “or equivalent,” what does “or equivalent” mean, and who decides what’s equivalent?


On a parking deck with harsh exposures—to road salt, frequent wetting, freeze-thaw cycles, and exterior weathering—what generic coating type works best, and why?


What criteria should be used in deciding between a liquid-applied and a sheet-applied air barrier?


How can I determine if my urban hospital building would benefit financially by installing a reflective roof coating on top of the current flat black roofing substrate?


How do I get permanently get rid of efflorescence on clay brick?


What causes concrete “dusting,” and is there any way to prevent or remove it?


I need to remove coatings from masonry on a historic-preservation project. What are my options for doing so without damaging the mortar joints?


I’m converting a commercial space and am trying to decide on the floor. Should we polish the concrete floor or coat it? The concrete seems in fair shape, from what we can see under the dried mastic where the old vinyl tiles have been removed.


How can I tell if my apartment building’s roof is suitable for installing a vegetative roof?


What’s the best way to protect a masonry wall from freeze/thaw cycling?


How do I clean off mortar smears that were allowed to cure for six months on a new architectural block building?


What is the best way to protect an exposed concrete foundation?


What is the best way to protect an exposed concrete foundation?


What errors are most likely to occur when measuring dry film thickness on steel, and how can I avoid them?


RH probes are commonly used in concrete floors to determine moisture content. Can they be used in CMU walls or pre-cast walls?


If the walls of single-wythe CMU with core fill insulation become saturated, can they be adequately dried out for painting? If so, how?


What are the advantages and disadvantages of using mechanical equipment inspectors or welding inspectors, instead of certified coating inspectors, to perform coating inspection duties?


How do you strip paint from a cementitious substrate if you can’t alter the surface texture?


Can efflorescence be removed from integrally colored CMU without damaging the appearance? How?


What is the optimal moisture content for masonry before painting can begin?


How do you determine the best type of paint to use when repainting a block or concrete building?


How is it possible to determine if concrete is sound enough to receive a thick-film coating?


What is the definition of a hybrid coating, and what are the performance properties of hybrid coatings?


How can you determine the moisture content of a concrete block (CMU) wall, and how can you judge when the moisture level is sufficiently low to paint?


Do you need to wait for the mortar to cure before repainting a brick surface after repointing and power-tool cleaning to remove loosely adhered coating material from a previous paint job? If so, how long, and is there a way to judge when it is safe?


On a parking deck with harsh exposure conditions—from road salts, frequent wetting, and freeze-thaw cycles, to some exterior weathering—what generic type of film-forming coating works best and why?


Do you need to wait for the mortar to cure before repainting a brick surface after repointing and power-tool cleaning? If so, how long, and how do you judge when it is safe?


What is the best way to remove graffiti from the surface of historic stone masonry on a church while preserving the appearance properties of the substrate?


As a facility owner, how can I justify the cost of quality control measures, such as third-party inspection, to upper management in my company?


How much detail should be included in a specification for the surface preparation and painting of a parking garage exterior that includes tilt-up and structural concrete substrates?


I've seen claims of extreme durability for a new concrete floor coating material exposed to heavy foot traffic. Is there a quick test to determine the validity of these claims?


What causes a persistent green/yellow hue on steel that has been exposed for a number of years in close proximity to the ocean, and how should the steel be prepared for painting?


What are the performance distinctions among various types of intumescent coatings? More specifically, the differences between water-based, solvent-based, epoxies and methacrylates?


What is the best way to judge the effectiveness of competing products offered as liquid-applied air barriers on concrete block, in terms of both durability and air barrier properties?


What should be considered in replacing a wooden deck with one made of concrete, in terms of the options for appearance, color, cost?


How do I deal with the small cracks and fractures that occur along the edges and corners of the stone imprints in some of my stamped concrete work?


How do you keep sealants in control joints from cracking or separating from the substrate?


What types of measures can be taken on or around metal pipes or columns that penetrate concrete or asphalt paving to reduce corrosion at the interface?


When is it necessary to install sealant between the base of building walls and concrete sidewalks or pavement to prevent moisture from wicking up the wall? How does the climate affect this decision?


What is the effect on the permeability of a coating when you add additional coats, either at the time of the original painting or as a maintenance activity?


What type of material should I use to achieve bright, bold colors that will last on a concrete floor with heavy foot traffic?


I am the facility manager for a new amusement park that will operate year-round in a hot, humid environment. Some critical structural steel in the heart of the park needs to be protected from corrosion and at the same time to retain very good appearance properties for as long as possible, since maintenance painting is disruptive. What coating system should I select to achieve the longest useful life, given that cost is a secondary consideration, and how long will this system look good while providing corrosion protection?


What kind of surface preparation prior to coating will be effective and at the same time economical for the aluminum window frames on a large commercial office building? The aluminum was coated originally with a baked-on fluoropolymer which has lost most of its gloss. Maintenance recoating will be with an air-dry fluoropolymer.


What is the best method of testing for moisture content in concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls prior to application of coatings?


What criteria of selection should be used in deciding between a liquid-applied and a sheet-applied air barrier?


What type of generic coating is required to protect the inside of a tank containing liquid with pH ranging from 2 to 13 and operated at 65-80 degrees Celsius? Why?


Should the surfaces of flanges be coated to prevent corrosion? Why or why not?


What is the effect of the wind-chill factor on the curing of epoxy and PU when temperatures are similar?


How do you repair polyurea coatings?


What is the maximum temperature that an epoxy powder coating can resist when applied on steel substrate?


Should 304 stainless steel pipework be coated prior to insulation?


What are the limitations of rust-encapsulating coatings?


What causes blistering/crater formation in freshly applied polyurethane topcoats, and how can this be avoided?


What is most effective treatment for steel contaminated with MIC before painting?


How do you properly coat welded joints?


What is the best way to repair localized coating breakdown on steel?


What action should be taken if the IOZ fails the MEK test?


What is best media to use to remove aged epoxy coal tar from a steel tank before re-lining?


Does roller nap decrease the lifespan of a three-coat OZEU (organic zinc prime coat, an epoxy intermediate coat, and a urethane finish coat) paint system? Is there a visual guide or specification for this in the industry or test results available for study?


What can be used in states that will not allow the use of MEK for IOZ testing per ASTM D4752?


What surface treatment is best when the maximum manufacturer recommended interval for overcoating has been exceeded?


Structural engineers often prefer mechanically galvanized bolts for accurate tightening while corrosion experts often prefer hot-dip galvanized bolts for superior corrosion protection. How do you resolve this inherent conflict?


In what circumstances is third-party inspection recommended for commercial coating work?


What causes amine blush in epoxy topcoats?


Your field surface preparation requires SSPC SP-10 and your field bolting uses hot-dip galvanized bolts. What surface preparation do you require/allow on and around the bolts?


Can water be sprayed onto an IOZ coated surface that has not fully cured due to low-humidity conditions to accelerate the cure?


How do you best remove lubricants and other contaminants from field-bolted connections prior to painting?


Is the MEK rub test a conclusive test to check the cure of IOZ coatings?


During newbuilding, do I have to stripe coat edges if I am using an edge retention primer?


What causes bubbling or cratering of epoxy intermediate coat when applied over epoxy zinc-rich primer?


What is the correct procedure for carrying out preventive maintenance painting work in a small chemical product tank?


Animal fat in slaughterhouses often penetrates concrete surfaces. If the fat is not removed before the concrete is coated, the fat can cause the coating to fail. How do you identify and remove the contamination before coating the concrete?


How do you determine the size of the dehumidification equipment required for a tank lining project?


How should a contractor respond when he/she reads a specification requirement that "the nominal dry film thickness of the coating shall be 3 mils"?


What is the best way to remove thick film elastomers from floors and ship decks?


What is a self-leveling floor coating, and are there any published standards such coatings must meet in terms of smoothness or other visual properties?


What is the most important factor to determine in a failure investigation and why is it so?


What criteria should an owner use to determine whether to specify full removal or spot- or zone-repair on a maintenance project?


Why do we still need to stripe coat given the array of high-solids, edge-retentive coatings currently on the market?


What are the differences between calcium sulfonate modified alkyd (CSA) and high-ratio calcium sulfonate alkyd (HRCSA) in terms of performance and when and where each is used?


When and how should ambiguities between a coating spec, data sheets and responsibilities be clarified?


If you’re performing a QA inspection as a part-time consultant and the surface in question was blasted and painted two days before you arrived on-site, should you sign off on the work if the owner asks you to?


What do you do when there is conflicting information between the specification and the product data sheet?


On guardrails on a marine wharf, grating panels consisting of mild steel bars about 1/8-inch by 1-inch on a 2-inch-square grid were painted with a three-coat zinc/epoxy/urethane system. Inspectors are finding numerous pinholes in the finish coat along the inside corners of the grating where the 1-inch-thick bars meet at a 90-degree angle. These pinholes were not noticed in the zinc or epoxy coats, but the final coat's visual inspection is more detailed. What is the likely cause of the pinholing, and what could be done to prevent it on future applications? Also, what should the disposition of the parts with pinholes be, as in, repair, accept as is, reblast and recoat, or an alternative?


On a recent project, complex pre-fabricated, hot-dipped galvanized panels exhibited thicknesses in the range required for the entire subsequent coating system. It was not practical or possible to accurately map the thickness of the galvanizing across all the various parts, and DFT gauges available only measure the entire non-ferrous coating, including the galvanizing. How should thickness-per-coat minimums and maximums be controlled and verified for subsequent coatings?


What is the recommended coating system and procedure for repairing deteriorated inorganic zinc/epoxy/polyurethane 3-coat systems? Does the repair system or procedure vary with the degree of deterioration and if so, how?


If an atmospheric coating system of a zinc-rich epoxy, epoxy mid coat and polyurethane color topcoat has properly cured with no visual defects, should I be worried if the thickness of any coat exceeds any specified maximum?


Alternatives to coal tar epoxies in wastewater/sewage applications have been in service for a number of years. From experience, which coating types with what fillers at what thicknesses (over steel) have performed best?


Washing with potable water is used to reduce the soluble salt level on steel. However, such water contains low levels of various salts that will deposit on the surface as the water dries. At what point does washing deposit more salt than it removes?


Is a sealer coat always required for coating systems applied to concrete surfaces that will be exposed to marine environments?


Under what types of exterior atmospheric exposures (other than marine) is it necessary to test for soluble salts?


Under what conditions should small-diameter blisters (<1.5 inches) in a water tank lining be repaired/repainted? Should the blisters be broken and the substrate examined?


What causes static electricity during abrasive blasting? What risk does it pose, and how can it be controlled?


What are the most effective procedures for protecting steel and adjacent concrete together?


What are the advantages and disadvantages of using mechanical equipment inspectors or welding inspectors, instead of certified coating inspectors, to perform coating inspection duties?


Should you paint the stainless steel outfitting (ladders, supports, etc.) in steel cargo tanks of chemical tankers?


How do I minimize corrosion at the splash zone on sheet pile and piping in brackish water?


In preparing for coating, what is the best way to treat a steel surface that has been attacked by microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC)?


Which factors are most important in selecting coatings for new concrete?


When blasting cast-iron structural steelwork, what type of defects might be found, and how do you address them?


What advantages/disadvantages have you seen with using recycled glass abrasives vs. traditional abrasives?


What tests should be run to determine if an existing concrete bridge pier needs rehabilitation or repair before cleaning and coating?


How long after blasting can stainless steel be left before painting? If this time is exceeded, what further surface preparation is required?


What generic types of coating materials best resist microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC)?


What are the pros and cons of specifying sieve sizes for abrasives?


What coating problems are likely in storage tanks that have dissimilar metal sides and floors?


How do you remove all traces of an uncured internal coating from a tank when abrasive blasting is not an option?


We are restricted to applying road-marking paints during hot, humid summer nights, on surfaces very often below dew point conditions. What is the best generic type of marking paint to use?


How do you determine whether a lead-bearing coating can be overcoated or removed and replaced?


What is the best way to achieve proper surface preparation in areas with limited access, such as interior box beams on bridges?


How do you strip paint from a cementitious substrate if you can’t alter the surface texture?


How many times can a building be repainted before the paint becomes too thick to perform properly?


What are the most effective procedures for protecting steel and adjacent concrete together?


What types of measures can be taken on or around metal pipes or columns that penetrate concrete or asphalt paving to reduce corrosion at the interface?


How long can a blasted surface be left before priming under different temperatures/relative humidity environments?


When is it necessary to install sealant between the base of building walls and pavement to prevent moisture from wicking up the wall? How does the climate affect this decision?


How do you protect concrete against microbiologically influenced corrosion?


What is the optimal moisture content for masonry before painting can begin?


How can active corrosion be determined on a live pipeline?


What is the proper surface preparation for stainless steel before coating to resist a salt-laden atmosphere?


How do you determine if local water is suitable for use in UHP waterjetting, particularly in areas where potable water is scarce?


What are the advantages and disadvantages of using mechanical equipment inspectors or welding inspectors, instead of certified coating inspectors, to perform coating inspection duties?


What is the best way to prevent corrosion of reinforcing bar in concrete?


How does a lower-metallic-content zinc-rich epoxy affect the life of a paint system?


How do you adequately assess the adhesion of a newly applied coating?


What pluses and minuses have you seen with using recycled-glass abrasives vs. traditional abrasives?


What measures must be taken to determine and assure the cleanliness of an abrasive?


When is it necessary to install sealant between the base of building walls and concrete sidewalks or pavement to prevent moisture from wicking up the wall? How does the climate affect this decision?


What is the most common or economical coating system for rehabbing the exterior of above-ground storage tanks?


How do you determine the best type of coating for repainting a block or concrete building?


What is the best method for removing production machine oils soaked deeply into a concrete floor before applying a non-skid coating?


What are the performance distinctions among various types of intumescent coatings (for example, water-based, solvent-based, epoxies and methacrylates)?


When and why would I need to stripe coat if I am using an edge-retention primer?


When performing maintenance painting of tank coatings, what are the pros and cons of overcoating an existing lining that appears to be in good condition?


What are the most effective procedures for protecting steel and adjacent concrete?


When refurbishing an old concrete secondary containment wall around a storage tank, what criteria should be used to determine if a crack can be repaired for coating or if the section of the wall should be rebuilt?


What is the best method for preparing newly galvanized steel to be overcoated with an epoxy system?


How pure must fresh water be for water washing or waterjetting, and how do you determine the water’s purity?


What can be done to prevent rust bleed in crevices when applying a zinc/epoxy/urethane system?


How long after blasting can stainless steel be left before painting? If this time is exceeded, what further surface preparation is required?


When applying a 100% solids, fast-curing polyurea coating on concrete, what is the best method for verifying that the proper thickness has been applied?


Which factors are most important in selecting coatings for new concrete?


What must specifiers consider when selecting and using sealants and grouts to fill gaps and seal concrete structures?


Which generic coating systems are suitable for protecting pipeline internals carrying highly abrasive media?


What are the criteria for selecting coatings for application during extreme (atmospheric) heat?


Are there special primers and surface preparation requirements for painting unpainted aluminum?


How do you determine whether a lead-bearing coating can be overcoated or removed and replaced?


How do you calibrate a DFT gauge in the magnetic field of a live power plant to measure coatings on steel substrates?


How do you know when pot life has expired? Can you extend pot life and, if so, how?


What health and safety precautions should contractors take when applying isocyanate-cured epoxies in the field?


How do you adequately assess the adhesion of a newly applied coating?


When should you specify UHP waterjetting on bridges?


What confined-space rescue protocol (internal, third party, etc.) have you developed, and why did you choose this plan?


What is an acceptable level of moisture in concrete walls before painting with an acrylic system, and how should the moisture level be measured?


Specifications often state that glossy surfaces must be dulled before overcoating. What are some methods for doing this, especially when sanding isn’t feasible?


I’ve heard that the use of the proper blast media is critical for the successful application of thermal spray aluminum and other metallics. What mechanism would lead to the differing performance characteristics of the TSA based on the blast media?


How should a conflict between requirements, such as film thickness, on a product data sheet and the specification be resolved?


Under what conditions should you apply a resurfacing mortar to new, below-grade vertical concrete scheduled to receive a high-build, protective lining system for chemical containment or immersion service?


How can I determine the cleanliness of stainless steel for painting after blast cleaning?


What are the pros and cons of using an organic vs. inorganic zinc primer?


How can you determine if a concrete substrate is in suitable condition for application of an acid stain?


I’ve heard about using crystalline admixture or crystalline materials on top of concrete to fill voids and make the substrate less permeable. When is this desirable, and what is the best way to use these materials?


When a specification calls for removing only loose coating from a masonry substrate, what methods are effective without damaging the intact coating that is left on the surface?


What are the common moisture tests for vertical, below-grade concrete structures scheduled to receive a high-build, protective lining system?


What smartphone apps or online tools do you find useful in your job? How do they work, and how do they help?


What kind of coating system provides the strongest resistance to staining from hot tires on garage floors and parking decks?


How do you assess salts and other non-visible contaminants on concrete surfaces?


What kind of coating system provides the strongest resistance to staining from hot tires on garage floors and parking decks?


How do you assess salts and other non-visible contaminants on concrete surfaces?


What is best way to remedy over-thickness of a topcoat after it has dried and cured?


What factors would justify coating stainless steel in water or wastewater service? What standards and methods apply?


How does one determine if concrete is sound enough to receive a thick-film coating?


How to do you abrasive-blast the interior surfaces of steel or ductile iron pipe scheduled to receive a high-build, high-performance protective lining system?


When a specification requires Manufacturer X’s system “or equivalent,” what does “or equivalent” mean, and who decides what’s equivalent?


How do you assess vertical concrete surface pH after surface preparation of existing concrete?


What is the best way to prevent tropical hardwood deck lumber like ironwood from developing a gray patina in sunlight?


How do you gauge the remaining service life of an aging FBE system on a buried transmission pipeline?


Can lightweight block (CMU) be successfully coated to prevent water intrusion, or is it best to build with standard weight?


How clean must the compressed-air supply be for blast cleaning, blow down and painting? How is cleanliness of the air determined?


On a parking deck with harsh exposures—to road salt, frequent wetting, freeze-thaw cycles, and exterior weathering—what generic coating type works best, and why?


Under what conditions should stainless steel be painted in the oil and gas industry?


How can you determine the moisture content of a concrete block (CMU) wall, and how can you judge when the moisture level is low enough to paint?


How does rapid depressurization affect lining performance in vessels and line pipe, and how can you identify any failure that might result?


What is the best way for me to assure I’m getting what I want when I specify a decorative finish such as glazing or gilding?


How do concrete admixtures such as hardeners and anti-dust compounds affect coating adhesion? What can be done to minimize negative effects?


What is the best way to ensure successful application of an acid stain to an existing horizontal concrete surface?


A specification for a bridge to be built of high-performance weathering steel requires an SSPC-SP 10, a profile of 3 to 5 mils, and metallizing with a final DFT of 10-12 mils. What challenges, time, and costs are associated with obtaining the profile?


What criteria should be used in deciding between a liquid-applied and a sheet-applied air barrier?


Is grinding the only way to remove large areas of a silicone coating from a ship's hull to replace the silicone with an epoxy mastic?


 
 
   

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