Problem Solving Forum


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In what types of climates and/or environments is the use of a vapor-impermeable air/moisture barrier recommended as opposed to a vapor-permeable system? Are there guidelines or standards that can help determine this?

Can glass abrasives be used for surface preparation of carbon steel in shipyards?

What is the clearest way to specify the degree of smoothness that you want to be achieved by surface preparation on an exterior wood substrate that is covered with deteriorated, uneven and built-up layers of paint?

What are some ways to improve transfer efficiency of airless spray application?

What would be an optimal coating system, in terms of both durability and productivity in field painting, for exposed structural steel on the exterior of a stadium built on the seacoast in a damp, cold environment?

What environmental and safety precautions need to be taken when removing lead-based paint from the brick on a commercial building adjacent to the sidewalk in a dense urban business district when the removal method is chemical stripping followed by water blasting?

What is the best combination of metal (for instance, steel or aluminum) and coatings for creating bright colors on public art and sculpture, considering durability, initial cost, maintenance burden, resistance to vandalism, and gloss and color retention.

What causes static electricity during abrasive blasting? What risk does it pose, and how can it be controlled?

How much detail should be included in a specification for the surface preparation and painting of a parking garage exterior that includes tilt-up and structural concrete substrates?

How can you justify the cost of installing an auto-blast machine and a paint booth in a fabricator's shop, and what resources are available to carry out such an analysis?

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What is the best way to protect porous masonry from graffiti?

What causes amine blush in epoxy topcoats?

The facade of my late-19th-century, cast-iron office building has been coated several times, most recently in the 1960s. The paint is faded and delaminating, and I want to remove and replace it. How do I assess the condition of the cast iron and coating, repair weakened areas of the cast iron and prepare and recoat the surface?

When performing maintenance surveys on structures that require coatings under insulation, how do you inspect the condition of the coatings?

I am the facility manager for a new amusement park that will operate year-round in a hot, humid environment. Some critical structural steel in the heart of the park needs to be protected from corrosion and at the same time to retain very good appearance properties for as long as possible, since maintenance painting is disruptive. What coating system should I select to achieve the longest useful life, given that cost is a secondary consideration, and how long will this system look good while providing corrosion protection?

How do you properly coat welded joints?

What is the best way to prepare a horizontal concrete surface for successful application of an acid stain?

What action should be taken if the IOZ fails the MEK test?

What kind of treatment is the best defense against graffiti for rough-surfaced concrete block (CMU)?

How should a contractor respond when he/she reads a specification requirement that "the nominal dry film thickness of the coating shall be 3 mils"?

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On guardrails on a marine wharf, grating panels consisting of mild steel bars about 1/8-inch by 1-inch on a 2-inch-square grid were painted with a three-coat zinc/epoxy/urethane system. Inspectors are finding numerous pinholes in the finish coat along the inside corners of the grating where the 1-inch-thick bars meet at a 90-degree angle. These pinholes were not noticed in the zinc or epoxy coats, but the final coat's visual inspection is more detailed. What is the likely cause of the pinholing, and what could be done to prevent it on future applications? Also, what should the disposition of the parts with pinholes be, as in, repair, accept as is, reblast and recoat, or an alternative?

On a recent project, complex pre-fabricated, hot-dipped galvanized panels exhibited thicknesses in the range required for the entire subsequent coating system. It was not practical or possible to accurately map the thickness of the galvanizing across all the various parts, and DFT gauges available only measure the entire non-ferrous coating, including the galvanizing. How should thickness-per-coat minimums and maximums be controlled and verified for subsequent coatings?

What are the pros and cons of acid-staining a concrete floor?

What’s the best way to determine if a cementitious-based mortar used to repair exterior concrete is ready to be coated?

What is the recommended coating system and procedure for repairing deteriorated inorganic zinc/epoxy/polyurethane 3-coat systems? Does the repair system or procedure vary with the degree of deterioration and if so, how?

I need to remove coatings from masonry on a historic-preservation project. What are my options for doing so without damaging the mortar joints?

If an atmospheric coating system of a zinc-rich epoxy, epoxy mid coat and polyurethane color topcoat has properly cured with no visual defects, should I be worried if the thickness of any coat exceeds any specified maximum?

We’re converting a grocery store into a motorcycle dealership. Should we polish the concrete floor or coat it? The concrete seems in fair shape, from what we can see under the dried mastic where the old vinyl tiles have been removed.

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What is the difference between a damp-surface tolerant and a wet-surface tolerant paint? How can we determine when a surface is damp or wet?

During a week of heavy rain, we painted the interior of a heated concrete building. The paint blistered badly a week later on the walls with an outside exposure. What’s the best way to remove the coating, prepare the surface, and recoat to prevent future blistering?

Alternatives to coal tar epoxies in wastewater/sewage applications have been in service for a number of years. From experience, which coating types with what fillers at what thicknesses (over steel) have performed best?

What type of coating system (and surface prep) should be used to protect a steel factory roof that is subject to hydrochloric acid vapors and other industrial pollutants and particulates in a hot, humid environment?

How does a lower-metallic-content zinc-rich epoxy affect the life of a paint system?

Washing with potable water is used to reduce the soluble salt level on steel. However, such water contains low levels of various salts that will deposit on the surface as the water dries. At what point does washing deposit more salt than it removes?

What should be included in the risk assessment of a particular painting project?

Is a sealer coat always required for coating systems applied to concrete surfaces that will be exposed to marine environments?

Under what types of exterior atmospheric exposures (other than marine) is it necessary to test for soluble salts?

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When preparing to refurbish an old concrete secondary containment wall around a storage tank, what criteria should be used to determine if a crack can be repaired for coating or if the section of the wall should be rebuilt?

Can efflorescence be removed from integrally colored CMU without damaging the appearance? How?

When preparing to refurbish an old concrete secondary containment wall around a storage tank, what criteria should be used to determine if a crack can be repaired for coating or if the section of the wall should be rebuilt?

Some specifications may have requirements that the inspector may know to be extraneous or may be more restrictive than necessary to obtain a quality coating application. What is the ethical responsibility of the inspector to reject non-conforming coatings that they know will perform as intended, particularly where attempted repairs may degrade the coating system?

How do you measure the DFT or WFT of a film-forming sealer applied to a metallized coating (e.g., flame-sprayed zinc)?

What types of measures can be taken on or around metal pipes or columns that penetrate concrete or asphalt paving to reduce corrosion at the interface?

How many times can a building be repainted before the paint becomes too thick to perform properly?

When is it cost-effective to use thermal spray in petrochemical facilities?

Which generic coating systems are suitable for protecting pipeline internals carrying highly abrasive media?

What are the performance distinctions among various types of intumescent coatings (for example, water-based, solvent based, epoxies, methacrylates, etc.)?

What can be done to prevent rust bleed in crevices when applying a zinc/epoxy/urethane system?

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How can you safely remove a polyurea coating? As blasting is not possible, is there a chemical removal method?

The literature indicates that UHP waterjetting does produce a profile on steel, although of a micro nature. Is this sufficient roughness for good adhesion of thin film primers (e.g. < 2 mils dft)?

How can you determine the moisture content of a concrete block (CMU) wall, and how can you judge when the moisture level is sufficiently low to paint?

What is the best way for me to assure I'm getting what I want when I specify a decorative finish such as glazing or gilding?

How do you repair delaminated areas of an elastomeric polyurea when the majority of the coating system is intact?

When we use field splice plate connections on structural steel projects, how do we prevent rust and rust staining at bolt heads and at the splice plate/steel interface?

Do you need to wait for the mortar to cure before repainting a brick surface after repointing and power-tool cleaning to remove loosely adhered coating material from a previous paint job? If so, how long, and is there a way to judge when it is safe?

What are the benefits and risks of using holiday testing on mat-reinforced, thermoset linings (over a conductive primer) on concrete substrates intended for immersion service? Should other tests be performed with or instead of holiday testing?

What generic types of coatings work best as liquid-applied air barriers, considering both cost and effectiveness, and what should be the dry film thickness of this system?

What are the significant differences in performance between an inorganic zinc primer (ethyl silicate) and an organic zinc primer (epoxy), given the same application and exposure conditions?

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If I apply 140 microns of inorganic zinc to a steel substrate with a 75 micron profile, is there any concern about cracking of the primer during storage, shipment, and erection of the structure, or with field-application of a topcoat?

I've seen claims of extreme durability for a new concrete floor coating material exposed to heavy foot traffic. Is there a quick test to determine the validity of these claims?

How do you determine the size of the dehumidification equipment required for a tank lining project?

What is the best method for removing a day-glo orange spray graffiti from a brick wall?

What is the best way to judge the effectiveness and durability of competing liquid-applied air barriers on concrete block?

A specification for a bridge to be built of high-performance weathering steel (HPS GR50/GR70W) requires an SSPC-SP 10, a profile of 3 to 5 mils, and metallizing with a final dft of 10-12 mils. What challenges, time, and costs are associated with obtaining the profile, primarily in the shop but also in the field? Are there any long-term performance issues with metallizing over weathering steel?

What procedures and tools are needed for assessing the condition of coatings and substrates in a process facility to develop a maintenance painting plan?

What environmental and safety precautions must be taken when using chemical stripping and water blasting to remove lead-based paint from a commercial building exterior in an urban business district?

What is the state-of-the-art treatment and preservation of the many cables used on suspension bridges?

What kind of initial treatment is the best defense against graffiti for rough-surfaced concrete block (CMU)?

What causes static electricity during abrasive blasting? What risk does it pose, and how can it be controlled?

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When SSPC-SP 3 (Power Tool Cleaning) is specified, how should one decide when to apply the tool to the entire surface and when to use it just where the coating appears defective or rusting?

How much detail should be included in a specification for the surface preparation and painting of a parking garage exterior that includes tilt-up and structural concrete substrates?

How do you accurately measure the adhesion of inorganic zinc?

How should a contractor respond when he reads a specification requirement that "the nominal dry film thickness of the coating shall be 3 mils"?

How much detail should be included in a specification for the surface preparation and painting of a parking garage exterior that includes tilt-up and structural concrete substrates?

In what types of climates and/or environments is the use of a vapor-impermeable air/moisture barrier recommended as opposed to a vapor-permeable system? Are there guidelines or standards that can help determine this?

What are some ways to improve transfer efficiency of airless spray application?

What type of generic coating is required to protect the inside of a tank containing liquid with pH ranging from 2 to 13 and operated at 65-80 degrees Celsius? Why?

What is the clearest way to specify the degree of smoothness that you want to be achieved by surface preparation on an exterior wood substrate that is covered with deteriorated, uneven and built-up layers of paint?

What would be an optimal coating system, in terms of both durability and productivity in field painting, for exposed structural steel on the exterior of a stadium built on the seacoast in a damp, cold environment?

Should the surfaces of flanges be coated to prevent corrosion? Why or why not?

What type of coating system (and surface prep) should be used to protect a steel factory roof that is subject to hydrochloric acid vapors and other industrial pollutants and particulates in a hot, humid environment?

How do you properly coat welded joints?

What environmental and safety precautions need to be taken when removing lead-based paint from the brick on a commercial building adjacent to the sidewalk in a dense urban business district when the removal method is chemical stripping followed by water blasting?

Is it sufficient to specify simply that paint should be applied "according to the manufacturer’s instructions?" If not, what kind of detail should be included?

What is the best combination of metal (for instance, steel or aluminum) and coatings for creating bright colors on public art and sculpture, considering durability, initial cost, maintenance burden, resistance to vandalism, and gloss and color retention.

What are the most important recommendations for ensuring success in field application of reflective roof coatings to aging single-ply roofs? Do these recommendations vary depending on whether the roof is EPDM, TPO, PVC, or some other type of substrate?

What is the best way to repair localized coating breakdown on steel?

What type of material should I use to achieve bright, bold colors on a concrete floor with heavy foot traffic?

What causes amine blush in epoxy topcoats?

How do I determine when a cementitious-based mortar used to repair exterior concrete is ready to be coated?

What kind of surface preparation prior to coating will be effective and at the same time economical for the aluminum window frames on a large commercial office building? The aluminum was coated originally with a baked-on fluoropolymer which has lost most of its gloss. Maintenance recoating will be with an air-dry fluoropolymer.

What is most effective treatment for steel contaminated with MIC before painting?

What coating or lining system, including surface preparation, should be used on an in-gound swimming pool constructed of galvanized steel in a northern climate?

Your field surface preparation requires SSPC SP-10 and your field bolting uses hot-dip galvanized bolts. What surface preparation do you require/allow on and around the bolts?

Can you provide recommendations on ways to make sure an acid stain can be successfully applied to an existing horizontal concrete surface? I understand that residues such as coatings, curing agents, waxes, or other materials will interfere with the stain’s reaction with the concrete, but can I find out what the substances are so I know how to remove them?

What is the best way to assure compliance with specified dry film coating thickness requirements on vertical concrete?

What are the alternatives for removing mildew from previously uncoated concrete block exteriors before coating?

Can an epoxy polyamide zinc phosphate primer be overcoated with a synthetic enamel alkyd-based topcoat? If no, why not?

What is the best method of testing for moisture content in concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls prior to application of coatings?

I've seen claims of extreme durability for a new concrete floor coating material exposed to heavy foot traffic. Is there a quick test to determine the validity of these claims?

What is the best method for removing a day-glo orange spray graffiti from a brick wall?

There are ways to increase the pressure for waterjetting to levels above 20,000 psi. What are the effects of different pressures (below and above 20,000 psi) on cleaning ratios?

What environmental and safety precautions need to be taken when removing lead-based paint from the brick on a commercial building adjacent to the sidewalk in a dense urban business district when the removal method is chemical stripping followed by water blasting?

What causes a persistent green/yellow hue on steel that has been exposed for a number of years in close proximity to the ocean, and how should the steel be prepared for painting?

Should pull-off adhesion tests be carried out on a zinc-rich primer alone, or only on a complete system?

What is the best combination of metal (for instance, steel or aluminum) and coatings for creating bright colors on public art and sculpture, considering durability, initial cost, maintenance burden, gloss, color retention and resistance to vandalism.

What are the performance distinctions among various types of intumescent coatings? More specifically, the differences between water-based, solvent-based, epoxies and methacrylates?

What are the alternatives for removing mildew from uncoated concrete block exteriors before coating?

What is the best way to judge the effectiveness of competing products offered as liquid-applied air barriers on concrete block, in terms of both durability and air barrier properties?

What is the best way to remedy over-thickness of a topcoat after it has dried and cured?

How do you abrasive-blast the interior surfaces of steel or ductile iron pipe scheduled to receive a high-build, high-performance protective lining system?

When is it necessary to install sealant between the base of building walls and concrete sidewalks or pavement to prevent moisture from wicking up the wall? How does the climate affect this decision?

After applying a thermal spray coating on a petrochemical industry live line that operates at 48 degrees Celsius (118 degrees Fahrenheit), the coating sustained a brown discoloration on the bottom of the pipe. What would cause this discoloration of a TSA coating?

How many times can a building be repainted before the paint becomes too thick to perform properly?

What is the best way to remove thick-film elastomers from floors and ship decks?

In reviewing the testing data for adhesion, some manufacturers indicate ASTM D4541 results while others show ASTM C3359 results. Is it possible to compare one against the other? For example, does 1037 psi provide better adhesion than 4A?

In a northern climate with extreme winters, is it reasonable to consider retrofitting an air barrier to a multi-unit brick apartment building? What sort of installation strategy would be most beneficial?

Is grinding the only way to remove large areas of a silicone coating from a ship's hull to replace the silicone with an epoxy mastic?

What is the effect on the permeability of a coating when you add additional coats, either at the time of the original painting or as a maintenance activity?

How should surface preparation be conducted in non-sparking atmospheres?

What generic types of coatings work best as liquid-applied air barriers, considering both cost and effectiveness, and what should be the dry film thickness of this system?

How do you repair delaminated areas of an elastomeric polyurea when the majority of the coating system is intact?

What is the best way to assure compliance with specified dry film coating thickness requirements on vertical concrete?

In what types of climates and/or environments is the use of a vapor-impermeable air/moisture barrier recommended as opposed to a vapor-permeable system? Are there guidelines or standards that can help determine this?

Can an epoxy polyamide zinc phosphate primer be overcoated with a synthetic enamel alkyd-based topcoat? If no, why not?

How does abrasive recycling affect cleaning rates when steel is blast-cleaned in the field?

When performing maintenance surveys on structures that require coatings under insulation, how do you inspect the condition of the coatings?

What type of material should I use to achieve bright, bold colors that will last on a concrete floor with heavy foot traffic?

In what circumstances is third-party inspection justified on commercial coating work?

What would be a reasonable service life for a two-coat, zinc-rich epoxy/epoxy mastic system, about 200-250 microns, in a marine environment? What evidence is there from the field?

I am the facility manager for a new amusement park that will operate year-round in a hot, humid environment. Some critical structural steel in the heart of the park needs to be protected from corrosion and at the same time to retain very good appearance properties for as long as possible, since maintenance painting is disruptive. What coating system should I select to achieve the longest useful life, given that cost is a secondary consideration, and how long will this system look good while providing corrosion protection?

Is there a definitive relationship between mechanical properties of coatings (such as elongation and tensile strength) and crack-bridging capability?

What are the significant performance differences between an inorganic zinc primer (ethyl silicate) and an organic zinc primer (epoxy), given the same application and exposure conditions?

What kind of surface preparation prior to coating will be effective and at the same time economical for the aluminum window frames on a large commercial office building? The aluminum was coated originally with a baked-on fluoropolymer which has lost most of its gloss. Maintenance recoating will be with an air-dry fluoropolymer.

What is the most effective available method for the treatment and preservation of the many cables used on suspension bridges?

Which single type of paint system can be used to protect both stainless steel and carbon steel welded together?

What coating or lining system, including surface preparation, should be used on an in-ground swimming pool constructed of galvanized steel in a northern climate?

What type of coating system (and surface prep) should be used to protect a steel factory roof that is subject to hydrochloric acid vapors and other industrial pollutants and particulates in a hot, humid environment?

What is the best method of testing for moisture content in concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls prior to application of coatings?

Is it practical to use black light to check for dirt or other foreign matter during surface preparation inspection?

What criteria of selection should be used in deciding between a liquid-applied and a sheet-applied air barrier?

What is the risk of damaging a paint film by inspecting a repaired area more than twice with a high-voltage holiday detector?

How can you determine if a concrete substrate is in suitable condition for application of an acid stain?

How does one apply thin polymer coatings to installed tubes or pipes with diameters of one to three inches and lengths of 20 to 60 feet?

What kind of training and credentials are needed in the U.S. for industrial painters who work near live wires?

I’ve heard about using crystalline admixture or crystalline materials on top of concrete to fill voids and make the substrate less permeable. When is this desirable, and what is the best way to use these materials?

What kinds and sources of data are available to support the use of antimicrobial agents in coatings for hospital substrates?

What errors are most likely to occur when measuring dry film thickness on steel, and how can I avoid them?

When a specification calls for removing only loose coating from a masonry substrate, what methods are effective without damaging the intact coating that is left on the surface?

When a specification requires Manufacturer X’s system “or equivalent,” what does "or equivalent" mean, and who decides what’s equivalent?

When coating an aged concrete floor, how should one determine the correct sequence of surface preparation among the options of pressure washing and grinding or other concrete removal and roughening methods?

When we use field splice plate connections on structural steel projects, how do we prevent rust and rust staining at bolt heads and at the splice plate/steel interface?

Can fluoropolymer coatings that are still very glossy be overcoated (if, for example, the topcoat is losing color or the color needs to be changed)? If so, what type of coating can be used, and what surface preparation is required?

What smartphone apps or online tools do you find useful in your job? How do they work, and how do they help?

What kind of coating system provides the strongest resistance to staining from hot tires on garage floors and parking decks?

What type of antifouling or foul-release coating will provide the greatest protection in warm tropical waters, and for how long?

When planning containment for blasting, what are the most important factors to consider?

What tests and criteria can a coatings user specify to assure consistent lot-to-lot performance of supplied coatings?

How do you determine the best type of staining to impart color and seal on a 30 to 40-year-old brick building being restored with some brick-faced additions?

What are the most important recommendations for ensuring success in field application of reflective roof coatings to aging single-ply roofs? Do these recommendations vary depending on whether the roof is EPDM, TPO, PVC, or some other type of substrate?

What is best way to remedy over-thickness of a topcoat after it has dried and cured?

When coating an aged concrete floor, how should one determine the correct sequence of surface preparation among the options of pressure washing and grinding or other concrete removal and roughening methods?

How do you assess vertical concrete surface pH after surface preparation of existing concrete?

I need to remove coatings from masonry on a historic-preservation project. What are my options for doing so without damaging the mortar joints?

We’re converting a grocery store into a motorcycle dealership. Should we polish the concrete floor or coat it? The concrete seems in fair shape, from what we can see under the dried mastic where the old vinyl tiles have been removed.

On guardrails on a marine wharf, grating panels consisting of mild steel bars about 1/8-inch by 1-inch on a 2-inch-square grid were painted with a three-coat zinc/epoxy/urethane system. Inspectors are finding numerous pinholes in the finish coat along the inside corners of the grating where the 1-inch-thick bars meet at a 90-degree angle. These pinholes were not noticed in the zinc or epoxy coats, but the final coat's visual inspection is more detailed. What is the likely cause of the pinholing, and what could be done to prevent it on future applications? Also, what should the disposition of the parts with pinholes be, as in, repair, accept as is, reblast and recoat, or an alternative?

I need to coat a bare concrete warehouse floor that has visible oil stains. What are my options for cleaning the concrete before coating it?

On a recent project, complex pre-fabricated, hot-dipped galvanized panels exhibited thicknesses in the range required for the entire subsequent coating system. It was not practical or possible to accurately map the thickness of the galvanizing across all the various parts, and DFT gauges available only measure the entire non-ferrous coating, including the galvanizing. How should thickness-per-coat minimums and maximums be controlled and verified for subsequent coatings?

What’s the best way to protect a masonry wall from freeze/thaw cycling?

What is the recommended coating system and procedure for repairing deteriorated inorganic zinc/epoxy/polyurethane 3-coat systems? Does the repair system or procedure vary with the degree of deterioration and if so, how?

Do the balcony floor slabs on the high-rise seaside condo I’m working on in Florida really need cathodic protection?

If an atmospheric coating system of a zinc-rich epoxy, epoxy mid coat and polyurethane color topcoat has properly cured with no visual defects, should I be worried if the thickness of any coat exceeds any specified maximum?

What is the difference between a damp-surface tolerant and a wet-surface tolerant paint? How can we determine when a surface is damp or wet?

Alternatives to coal tar epoxies in wastewater/sewage applications have been in service for a number of years. From experience, which coating types with what fillers at what thicknesses (over steel) have performed best?

What is the best way to protect porous masonry from graffiti?

Washing with potable water is used to reduce the soluble salt level on steel. However, such water contains low levels of various salts that will deposit on the surface as the water dries. At what point does washing deposit more salt than it removes?

Is a sealer coat always required for coating systems applied to concrete surfaces that will be exposed to marine environments?

How do I clean off mortar smears that were allowed to cure for six months on a new architectural block building?

Some specifications may have requirements that the inspector may know to be extraneous or may be more restrictive than necessary to obtain a quality coating application. What is the ethical responsibility of the inspector to reject non-conforming coatings that they know will perform as intended, particularly where attempted repairs may degrade the coating system?

Under what types of exterior atmospheric exposures (other than marine) is it necessary to test for soluble salts?

I am the facility manager for a new amusement park that will operate year-round in a hot, humid environment. Some critical structural steel in the heart of the park needs to be protected from corrosion and at the same time to retain very good appearance properties for as long as possible, since maintenance painting is disruptive. What coating system should I select to achieve the longest useful life, given that cost is a secondary consideration, and how long will this system look good while providing corrosion protection?

What is the best way to judge the effectiveness of competing products offered as liquid-applied air barriers on concrete block, in terms of both durability and air barrier properties?

What is the best way to remove thick film elastomers from floors and ship decks?

What kind of surface preparation prior to coating will be effective and at the same time economical for the aluminum window frames on a large commercial office building? The aluminum was coated originally with a baked-on fluoropolymer which has lost most of its gloss. Maintenance recoating will be with an air-dry fluoropolymer.

Animal fat in slaughterhouses often penetrates concrete surfaces. If the fat is not removed before the concrete is coated, the fat can cause the coating to fail. How do you identify and remove the contamination before coating the concrete?

What coating or lining system, including surface preparation, should be used on an in-gound swimming pool constructed of galvanized steel in a northern climate?

What kind of coating system, including surface preparation, should be used to protect a steel factory roof that is subject to hydrochloric acid vapors and other industrial pollutants and particulates in a hot, humid environment?

Can you provide recommendations on ways to make sure an acid stain can be successfully applied to an existing horizontal concrete surface? I understand that residues such as coatings, curing agents, waxes, or other materials will interfere with the stain’s reaction with the concrete, but can I find out what the substances are so I know how to remove them?

What are the alternatives for removing mildew from previously uncoated concrete block exteriors before coating?

What is the best method of testing for moisture content in concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls prior to application of coatings?

What are the benefits and risks of using holiday testing on mat-reinforced, thermoset linings (over a conductive primer) on concrete substrates intended for immersion service? Should other tests be performed with or instead of holiday testing?

What are the significant differences in performance between an inorganic zinc primer (ethyl silicate) and an organic zinc primer (epoxy), given the same application and exposure conditions?

What should be considered in replacing a wooden deck with one made of concrete, in terms of the options for appearance, color, cost? I've seen articles about stains, integral coloring, and other decorative treatments, as well as lighter-weight concrete, but it's not easy to compare and judge the options.

Is there a definitive relationship between mechanical properties of coatings (such as elongation and tensile strength) and crack-bridging capability?

What criteria of selection should be used in deciding between a liquid-applied and a sheet-applied air barrier?

What procedures and tools are needed for assessing the condition of coatings and substrates in a process facility to develop a maintenance painting plan?

How can I determine if my hospital building in Philadelphia can benefit financially from installation of a reflective roof coating on top of the current black roofing substrate on a flat surface?

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