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Revision Date: April 01, 2013
Updated On: June 04, 2013
5.1 The electrical conductivity of concrete is primarily influenced by the presence of moisture. Other factors, which affect the electrical continuity of concrete structures, include the following:
5.1.1 Presence of metal rebars,
5.1.2 Cement content and type,
5.1.3 Aggregate types,
5.1.5 Porosity within the concrete,
5.1.6 Above or below grade elevation,
5.1.7 Indoor or outdoor location,
5.1.8 Temperature and humidity, and
5.1.9 Age of concrete.
5.2 The electrical conductivity of concrete itself may be successfully used for high-voltage continuity testing of linings applied directly with no specific conductive underlayment installed. However, the voltage required to find a discontinuity may vary greatly from point to point on the structure. This variance may reduce the test reliability.
5.3 Although the most common conductive underlayments are liquid primers applied by trowel, roller, or spray, and which contain carbon or graphite fillers, others may take the form of the following:
5.3.1 Sheet-applied graphite veils,
5.3.2 Conductive polymers,
5.3.3 Conductive graphite fibers,
5.3.4 Conductive metallic fibers, and
5.3.5 Conductive metallic screening.
5.4 Liquid-applied conductive underlayments may be desirable as they can serve to address imperfections in the concrete surface and provide a better base for which to apply the lining.
5.5 This practice is intended for use only with new linings applied to concrete substrates. Inspecting a lining previously exposed to an immersion condition could result in damaging the lining or produce an erroneous detection of discontinuities due to permeation or moisture absorption of the lining. Deposits may also be present on the surface causing telegraphing. The use of a high voltage tester on a previously exposed lining is not recommended because of possible spark through which will damage an otherwise sound lining. A low voltage tester can be used but could produce erroneous readings.
5.6 The user may consider this practice when performance requirements of the lining in a specified chemical environment require assurance of a lining free of discontinuities.
5.7 Factors affecting the dielectric properties and test voltage shall be considered. Some factors are the curing time of liquid-applied linings; the possible presence of electrically conductive fillers or solvents, or both; the possible presence of air inclusions or voids; and the compatibility of conductive underlayments with the specified lining.
5.8 A pulsed dc high voltage may cause a lining to breakdown at a lower voltage than would be the case for a continuous dc voltage.