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C231 Standard Test Method for Air Content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Pressure Method

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Revision Date: November 08, 2010
Updated On: November 19, 2010
Editorial Change:
This test method covers the determination of the air content of freshly mixed concrete. The test determines the air content of freshly mixed concrete exclusive of any air that may exist inside voids within aggregate particles. For this reason, it is applicable to concrete made with relatively dense aggregate particles and requires determination of the aggregate correction factor (see 6.1 and 10.1).

This test method and Test Method C138/C138M and C173/C173M provide pressure, gravimetric, and volumetric procedures, respectively, for determining the air content of freshly mixed concrete. The pressure procedure of this test method gives substantially the same air contents as the other two test methods for concretes made with dense aggregates.

The air content of hardened concrete may be either higher or lower than that determined by this test method. This depends upon the methods and amount of consolidation effort applied to the concrete from which the hardened concrete specimen is taken; uniformity and stability of the air bubbles in the fresh and hardened concrete; accuracy of the microscopic examination, if used; time of comparison; environmental exposure; stage in the delivery, placement and consolidation processes at which the air content of the unhardened concrete is determined, that is, before or after the concrete goes through a pump; and other factors.

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